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low-pressure carburizing

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes surface modification processes that go beyond conventional heat treatments, including plasma nitriding, plasma carburizing, low-pressure carburizing, ion implantation, physical and chemical vapor deposition, salt bath coating, and transformation hardening via high-energy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... and hardening gears is to secure a hard case and a relatively soft but tough core. For this process, low-carbon steels (up to a maximum of approximately 0.30% carbon), either with or without alloying elements (nickel, chromium, manganese, molybdenum), normally are used. After case carburizing, the gear teeth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Stability of the Cr-S-O system Source: Ref 3 Carburization As in the case of sulfide penetration, carburization of high-temperature alloys is thermodynamically unlikely except at very low oxygen partial pressures, because the protective oxides of chromium and aluminum are generally more likely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... carbonitriding, which is similar to carburizing, diffuses both carbon and nitrogen atoms into the surface. 21.3 Carburizing Carburizing is conducted by heating a low-carbon steel into the single-phase austenitic field, generally between 845 and 955 °C (1550 and 1750 °F), where the steel has a high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... carburizing where the carbon content of a low-carbon steel is raised to some desirable higher level. On the other hand, if the CO 2 partial pressure is too high relative to the CO content, the reaction in 21.1 will go to the right and decarburization will occur. The latter condition is sometimes purposely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... thermodynamically stable. Thus, the silicon effect was diminished. The model alloy 50/50 (50Ni-50Cr with very low silicon level) was among the best performers in the alloys tested. Fig. 5.18 Oxygen potentials of the test environments used by Norton and his colleagues in carburization studies at Petten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... Abstract The primary objective of carburizing and hardening gears is to secure a hard case and a relatively soft but tough core. For this process, low-carbon steels (up to a maximum of approximately 0.30% carbon), either with or without alloying elements (nickel, chromium, manganese, molybdenum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... Two factors may control the rate of carburizing—the carbon-absorption reaction at the surface and diffusion of carbon into the metal. Carburizing is done at elevated temperature, generally in the range of 850 to 950°C (1550 to 1750 °F). However, temperatures as low as 790 °C (1450 °F) and as high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
..., and stainless steel grades. The steels of the first group have very low carbon contents, less than 0.12%, and must be carburized to develop high surface hardness and wear resistance for molding applications. Wear resistance is a function of alloy content as well as carbon content, and the wear resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... 8620, 8622 Off highway Helical, internal, spiral/straight bevel, spur 1118, 5130, 5140, 5150, 8620, 8822, 9310 Tractor Herringbone, internal, spur 4118, 4140, 8822 Source: Ref 3 Most gears are made of carbon and low-alloy steels, including carburizing steels and the limited...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... hardness than the low-carbon core. This method of case hardening, called carburizing, is feasible if small, fast diffusing elements, such as carbon or nitrogen, that will form hard carbides or nitrides are used. Surface Hardening by Localized Heat Treatment Because these processes require a high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
.... There are several geometric variables, such as diameter, face width, number of teeth, pressure angle, and so on, that can be optimized to lower the contact stress. Steels and heat treatment are selected to obtain hard tooth surfaces with high strength. Maximum pitting resistance is obtained with carburized gear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... will have a carbon potential of 0.95% C. Therefore, a 1095 steel placed into this gas under these conditions will neither carburize nor decarburize. In the discussion of Fig. 7.7 , this gas was called a neutral gas for the 1095 steel. Now, suppose a low-carbon steel such as a 1018 is placed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... low-cycle (≤10 5 cycles to failure) and high-cycle (>10 5 cycles to failure) fatigue. Because carburized steels for high-performance gear applications are subjected to cyclic loading, this is one of the most important properties or measure of gear performance. The section on “Bending Fatigue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... these processes do to carburized and quenched parts and how the properties of those parts are improved or impaired by these treatments. Tempering Generally, the tempering of steels can be carried out at any temperature up to about 700 °C (1290 °F). This range is divided into two more specific ranges: low...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... condition. During the quench of a carburized part, transformation takes place in the low-carbon core material while the high-carbon surface is still austenitic. Therefore, at temperatures approximating M s for the surface material, tensile residual stresses develop in the still austenitic surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... treatments Process Name of case Process temperature °C (°F) Case hardness, typical case depth Hardness, HRC Typical base metals Process characteristics Carburizing Pack Diffused carbon 815–1090 (1500–2000) 125 μm–1.5 mm (5–60 mils) 50–63 (a) Low-carbon steels, low-carbon alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... in this chapter. Important metallurgical phases and microconstituents in steel Table 9.1 Important metallurgical phases and microconstituents in steel Phase (microconstituent) Crystal structure of phases (a) Characteristics Ferrite (α-iron) bcc Relatively soft low-temperature phase; stable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
..., if the operational loads do not exceed the yield strength of the metal. The principal types of elevated-temperature failure mechanisms are creep, stress rupture, low-cycle or high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, overload, hot corrosion, embrittlement, sulfidation, carburization, oxidation, distortion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of time and temperature for carburizing can serve as an approximate guide for plasma-assisted ferritic nitrocarburizing ( Ref 1 ). The guide is based on a plain low-carbon steel, using the formula: Case   depth  = K t where the case depth is in inches (for case depth in millimeters...