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low-pressure carburizing

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes surface modification processes that go beyond conventional heat treatments, including plasma nitriding, plasma carburizing, low-pressure carburizing, ion implantation, physical and chemical vapor deposition, salt bath coating, and transformation hardening via high-energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... low oxygen partial pressures, because the protective oxides of chromium and aluminum are generally more likely to form than the carbides. However, carburization can occur kinetically in many carbon-containing environments. Carbon transport across continuous nonporous scales of Al 2 O 3 or Cr 2 O 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... exceeds the partial pressure required to maintain a given carbon content, the reaction represented in Eq 21.1 , as written, will go to the left and carburizing will occur until a new equilibrium is reached. This is the case in commercial carburizing where the carbon content of a low-carbon steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and tempered before nitriding. A third process, called carbonitriding, which is similar to carburizing, diffuses both carbon and nitrogen atoms into the surface. Carburizing is conducted by heating a low-carbon steel into the single-phase austenitic field, generally between 845 and 955 °C (1550 and 1750 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... thermodynamically stable. Thus, the silicon effect was diminished. The model alloy 50/50 (50Ni-50Cr with very low silicon level) was among the best performers in the alloys tested. Fig. 5.18 Oxygen potentials of the test environments used by Norton and his colleagues in carburization studies at Petten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.9781627083157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... service is unlimited, if the operational loads do not exceed the yield strength of the metal. The principal types of elevated-temperature failure mechanisms are creep, stress rupture, low-cycle or high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, overload, hot corrosion, embrittlement, sulfidation, carburization...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... are compared. One steel has a martensite/austenite outer case, and the other steel also contains some bainite. Macrostraining can occur during cooling from the austenitic condition. During the quench of a carburized part, transformation takes place in the low-carbon core material while the high-carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... carbonitriding, which is similar to carburizing, diffuses both carbon and nitrogen atoms into the surface. Carburizing is conducted by heating a low-carbon steel into the single-phase austenitic field, generally between 845 and 955 °C (1550 and 1750 °F), where the steel has a high solubility for carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...-Metallurgist , ASM International , 2007 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.9781627082648 9.3 Brooks C. , Principles of the Heat Treatment of Plain Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels , ASM International , 1996 9.4 Porter D.A. and Easterling K.E. , Diffusionless Transformations , Phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... 3 Operating compositions of liquid carburizing baths Constituent Composition of bath, % Light case, low temperature 845–900 °C (1550–1650 °F) Deep case, high temperature 900–955 °C (1650–1750 °F) Sodium cyanide 10–23 6–16 Barium chloride … 30–55 (a) Salts of other...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... ), Dec 1980 , p 19 – 24 19. Ruxanda R. and Florian E. , Microscopic Observations of the Carbide/Matrix Interphasic Interface in a Low-Alloyed Hypercarburised Steel , Proc. 2nd International Conf. on Carburizing and Nitriding with Atmospheres , Dec 1995 ( Cleveland ), ASM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... these conditions will neither carburize nor decarburize. In the discussion of Fig. 7.7 , this gas was called a neutral gas for the 1095 steel. Now, suppose a low-carbon steel such as a 1018 is placed into a furnace at 1000 °C (1830 °F) with the endo composition set to the 0.95 carbon potential value...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... and tempered, 50 HRC) after grinding with alumina. Source: Ref 14 Gentle Conventional Abusive Wheel A46HV A46KV A46MV Wheel speed, ft/min 2000 6000 6000 Down feed, in./pass Low-stress grinding 0.001 0.002 Grinding fluid Sulf oil Soluble oil (dilution 1:20) Dry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... quenching Table 7.14 Effect of subzero cooling after quenching Heat treatment after carburizing Condition Retained austenite, % Hardness, HRC Bending strength Impact MPa kg/mm 2 MPa kg/mm 2 Oil quenched from 800 °C, low-temperature tempered As-quenched 62 54 1530 156 25.5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... maintenance Vacuum Diffused carbon 815–1090 (1500–2000) 75 μm–1.5 mm (3–60 mils) 50–63 (a) Low-carbon steels, low-carbon alloy steels Excellent process control, bright parts, faster than gas carburizing, high equipment costs Nitriding Gas Diffused nitrogen, nitrogen compounds 480–590 (900...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... fatigue life in relation to the amount of material removed from carburized SAE 8620 samples prior to testing. The hatched band represents the depth of internal oxidation beneath the original surface of specimens. Source: Ref 36 Fig. 1.10 Examples of low-carbon surfaces associated with internal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.../tetsutohagane1955.66.10_1532 41. Nagoya International Training Center , Precautions against Failure of Heat Treatment , Japan International Cooperation Agency , 1974 42. Krauss G. , Deformation and fracture in martensitic carbon steels tempered at low temperatures , Metall. Mat. Trans. B , Vol 32B...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... , the free energy of a homogeneous AB compound. Therefore, a decrease in free energy is produced by the A and B atoms diffusing away from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration, or down the concentration gradient. This being said, diffusion can occur up a concentration gradient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... causes the air molecules to diffuse through the soap to the low-pressure convex side. So, the soap bubble grain boundaries always move slowly toward the concave side as the air diffuses to the convex side. Fig. 8.2 Surface tension forces acting on grain-boundary segments produce pressure...