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low-frequency vibration method

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., normal dye penetrants should never be used, because they can contaminate the internal surfaces of the delamination, making subsequent repair more difficult or impossible. Although tap testing is normally classified as a sonic test method, actually a low-frequency vibration method...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
... distribution among the planet gears. However, even in the alternate design, low-frequency subsynchronous vibrations (SSVs) were observed. As a result, the babbitted sleeve bearings, which are susceptible to damage from SSV, were replaced with tilt-pad sleeve bearings. Figure 8.5(a) shows a typical tilt-pad...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
... vibration must be measured directly with a displacement transducer. Velocity Transducers The earliest methods of vibration measurement used velocity transducers. Key characteristics of these transducers include: The frequency range is approximately 10 to 1000 Hz, which is ideal for most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.9781627084352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
... calculations are often required to identify such defects, as discussed in the section “Calculation of Gear Frequencies for Identification on Vibration Spectrum” in this chapter. Vibration spectra as obtained with a dynamic signal are especially useful for low-level vibrations produced by components...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
... and harmonic. Characteristics of Gearbox Vibrations An understanding of vibration characteristics is essential for identifying sources of gearbox vibrations and determining their frequencies. Functionally, a gearbox is a simple device that is used for low- or high-speed motion transfer. Low and high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gvar.t59360091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-435-2
... on upper half of output shaft outboard bearing Analysis of Nonsynchronous 21 Hz Vibration An additional analysis was conducted to see if there were any forcing frequencies or harmonics from any gearbox component close to 21 Hz. A cross-sectional view of the gearbox used in the turbogenerator...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... of compacted graphite iron over gray iron and ductile iron. It presents examples of low- and high-frequency thermal cycling, both of which affect the thermal stresses that castings are exposed to during temperature fluctations. Information on optimum carbon and silicon ranges as well as mechanical property...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This chapter begins with an overview...
Book Chapter

By L. L. Sparks
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... in the frequency of vibration of atoms or molecules about an equilibrium position in the lattice. In the case of metals, the motion of the free electrons also contributes to the specific heat but is significant only at very low temperatures. The following sections describe the lattice contribution to specific heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... is typically 0.1 GPa. Subresonance, forced-vibration methods are used at very low frequencies (determined by the experimentalist’s patience) up to typically 100 Hz. At very low stress levels (about 0.1 MPa), the stress–strain amplitude ratio is determined. Damping can be measured simultaneously as the phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of the atoms within the crystalline lattice. The atoms are constantly vibrating at very high frequencies and with relatively small amplitudes. However, the atoms do not vibrate independently; rather, the vibrations of adjacent atoms are coupled together as a result of their atomic bonding. These vibrations...
Book Chapter

By A. F. Clark
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
...) led to various assumptions about the frequencies of vibration allowed. Einstein was the first to account for the quantum nature of the low-temperature oscillations and assumed that all particles had the frequency predicted by Planck to be v E = kT / h and derived Eq. 2.16 for the specific heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... and receiver. The ultrasonic method is characterized by high sensitivity and very deep penetration, but in addition to its surface limitations, its production speed is relatively low. A liquid couplant is necessary and can be a source of interference. This method is suitable for testing ingots, billets...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... and quenching method. Surface Hardening Steels of Unaltered Composition Two general methods are used for surface hardening steels without altering the composition: Make the part from a low-hardenability steel, sometimes referred to as shallow-hardening steel, or rapidly heat the steel so that only a thin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... operation Carbon restore Quenching speed is too slow Lower temperature of water or polymer quenchant Lower concentration of polymer quenchant Increase impingement of change method of application Change type to faster-speed quenchant Austenitizing temperature is too low Use a longer heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... have absorption frequencies and corresponding wavelengths in the 1 to 50 μm IR region. The vibrational energy of a group of atoms is associated with a given frequency, which, in most cases, is independent of polymer chain length. Some of the absorption frequencies are almost the same as those...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... heating, methods such as furnace hardening, flame hardening, and liquid nitriding were used. However, each of these processes presented problems, such as inadequate or nonuniform hardening and distortion. Induction hardening overcomes many of these problems. Through proper selection of frequency, power...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
...) The measured result of equilibrium concentration of vacancies If a vacancy is created in a crystal, the vibration frequency of the crystal around it changes and the entropy increases. When this influence is considered, Eq 2.43 that shows the change of free energy is modified: (Eq 2.43a) Δ G...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... pressing medium. The initial loading of powders must be uniform, since any layering effects in this stage will also be present in the finished compact. Frequently, vibration methods are used to ensure proper powder distribution. The application of pressure from all directions results in an essentially...