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longitudinal waves

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... (longitudinal-wave) contact, (b) angle-beam (shear-wave) contact, (c) dual-element contact, (d) delay-tip (stand-off) contact, and (e) immersion. Source: Ref 1 The selection of a transducer depends very much on the properties of the test specimen, particularly its sound attenuation. Ultrasonics of high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., using center frequencies up to 300 MHz. The SAM developed at Stanford was first demonstrated by Lemmons and Quate in 1973. It employs a large numerical aperture (NA) lens in order to excite longitudinal, shear and surface waves in the sample [5 , 6] . Instead of the large water baths of C-scan...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., longitudinal grooves, concavity at the weld root, incomplete filling of grooves, excessive penetration, offset or mismatch, burn-through, irregularities at electrode change points, grinding marks, and electrode spatter. Surface irregularities may cause density variations on a radiograph. When possible...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... Specialized equipment matched to specific application required. Interpretation moderately difficult, requiring experience or more sophisticated equipment. Resolution is operator sensitive. B.6 Ultrasonic inspection B.6.1 Longitudinal waves. Application and detection of reflection of pulsed (typically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... stress-corrosion cracking damage Table 18.1 Nondestructive evaluation techniques for suspected stress-corrosion cracking damage Material NDE method (a) Ultrasonic, shear wave Ultrasonic, longitudinal wave Ultrasonic, surface wave Magnetic particle, dry Magnetic particle, wet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of the final product, as shown in ingot B in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Longitudinal sections of two types of ingots showing typical pipe and porosity. When the ingots are rolled into bars, these flaws become elongated throughout the center of the bars. Source: Ref 1 Porosity is the result of trapped...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., inspection adds little to the total operating cost. In contrast, the lower cost installations usually involve a separate operation and require the services of a highly trained, skilled operator. The diameters of resistance (longitudinal) welded steel tubing range from about 13 to 914 mm (½ to 36...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... fragment Explosions produce shock waves both longitudinal and transverse, which traverse through the thickness of metal. As the waves meet the edges of the sheet, additional waves are created. The encounters between the various waves create highly localized stress inhomogeneities, which lead...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Magnetization Longitudinal Magnetization Effect of Flux Direction Magnetization Methods Both direct and alternating currents are suitable to magnetize parts for magnetic particle inspection. Magnetic field strength, direction, and distribution are greatly affected by the current type used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... 12.2 , a transmitting transducer generates a longitudinal ultrasonic wave that travels through the laminate and is received by a receiving transducer placed on the opposite side of the part. If the part contains a defect, such as porosity or a delamination, some (or all) of the sound will be either...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
.... Longitudinal stress concentrations, such as grooves or splines that are in the same direction as the longitudinal shear stress component, may tend to direct any shear crack in that direction, as may a transverse or annular groove in the transverse shear stress direction. For explanation, see Fig. 1(b...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... limits and yield strength at room temperature for vacuum hot pressed S-200F beryllium Table 4.4 Tensile elastic limits and yield strength at room temperature for vacuum hot pressed S-200F beryllium Property Test orientation Longitudinal Transverse PEL (a) , MPa 32.4 34.5 Yield...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... to them for analysis. The role of directionality in tensile testing of wrought metals should also be considered. Specimens cut transversely to the longitudinal axis of a component (such as a shaft, plate, or sheet) usually give lower tensile and ductility values than those cut along the longitudinal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
..., and fiber-optic light source. Figure 4-1 Schematic illustrating characteristics of light waves, (a) the amplitude is a measure of light intensity; as the amplitude (α 1 , or α 2 ) increases, brightness increases. ( b ) color depends on wavelength; the shortest visible wavelength (λ 1 ) is blue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... sandblasting to remove oxides and scale appears to be the most effective technique. Shear-wave ultrasonic (SWU) inspection has also been used for piping, but it does not always distinguish SCC and other defect indications, such as shrinkage cracks, slag inclusions, lack of fusion, or fatigue cracks...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in Steel Forgings Liquid Penetrant Detection of Flaws in Heat-Resistant Alloy Forgings Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect both large and small internal flaws in forgings. Forgings, by their nature, are amenable to ultrasonic inspection. Both longitudinal or shear wave (straight or angle beam...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in Fig. 11 . The highest wave velocities occurred in the pressing direction. An additional distinction was found between the velocities in the longitudinal and lateral axes of an oblong specimen, and these results were shown to be reproducible between different powder lots and specimen groups...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...; drawn to 65% reduction in area. 420 HV. (e) Picral. 500×. (f) Picral. 2000×. (g) and (h) 0.8% C (0.82C, wt%). (g) Lead quenched to 500 °C; drawn to 94% reduction in area. Longitudinal section. Transmission electron micrograph. 20,000×. (h) Lead quenched to 500 °C; drawn to 94% reduction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
.... (a) to (d) 0.2% C (0.24C-0.05Si-0.3Mn, wt%). Transverse sections of weld region of a longitudinal weld in a forge welded pipe, (a) 3% nital. 10×. (b) Picral. 250×. (c) Picral. 100×. (d) 1% nital. 750×. (e) Transverse section of a forge weld between a puddled wrought iron (0.06C-0. 13Si-0.03Mn, wt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... 6.56 Failed waterwall tube with window opening at tube bend Fig. 6.57 (a) Close-up view of the puncture portion of the failed waterwall tube. (b) Longitudinal cut section showing ID surface Fig. 6.58 Low-magnification views showing (a) brittle nature of failure, 11×; and (b) inner...