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long-term degradation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Transistors are the most important active structure of any semiconductor component. Performance characteristics of such devices within the specifications are key to ensuring proper functionality and long-term reliability of the product. In this article, a summary of the semiconductor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Post-mortem analysis of photovoltaic modules that have degraded performance is essential for improving the long term durability of solar energy. This article focuses on a general procedure for analyzing a failed module. The procedure includes electrical characterization followed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... rise beyond permissible design limits. The degradation of the microstructure, particularly the breakdown of bainite into ferrite and globular carbides, along with an excessive tendency to scale formation, is indicative of long-term overheating beyond permissible design limits. The calculated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... is critical so that long-term durability of the part is maintained. If the temperature to which the composite is exposed in service exceeds the glass transition temperature of the matrix, the material can creep or distort. However, even at lower temperatures than the glass transition temperature, polymeric...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... been observed in both long-term and short-term properties of many polymeric materials. In fact, polymer degradation is often limited, at least initially, to the surfaces of exposed plastic products. Oxidative degradation initiated by either purely thermal means or by UV radiation occurs initially...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... components, burner nozzles, heat exchanger heating elements, noniron metallurgy insulating parts, thermal barrier coatings Mechanical Long-term, high-temperature resistance, fatigue, thermal shock, wear resistance Wear parts; sealings; bearings; cutting tools; engine, motor, and gas turbine parts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of time-to-failure, and this must be taken into account in analyzing failure data. Because there are few truly photostable plastics and because there is a lack of specific long-term data on many engineering plastics, it is generally assumed that these plastics require some protection in the form...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... the degradation is more modest but still large enough to be of concern. All matrix-dependent properties are affected. Examples of transverse tensile strength and interlaminar shear strength are shown in Fig. 15.5 . Again, the degradation is more modest at the lower temperatures. In these plots, the term wet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... temperature of the master curve is 25 °C (77 °F). Insert graph shows the amount of curve shifting required at different temperatures. Source: Ref 5 There are precautions for using time-temperature superposition for the prediction of long-term behavior. The time-temperature superposition is valid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... blends MOST WIDELY USED PLASTIC materials developed in the past 50 years are characteristically durable and inert in the presence of microbes. This stability is important to long-term performance. However, in many applications, only short-term performance is required before the material is discarded...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... distribution. For example, long-term overheating of waterwall tubes below Ac 1 leads to changes in microstructure such as degradation of pearlite to form ferrite and carbides. Similarly, long-term service of superheater and reheater tubes at elevated temperatures results in the precipitation and coagulation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... to improve long-time creep-rupture behavior of alloys by reducing microstructural degradation at normal operating temperatures. Formation of tcp phases is not restricted to γ′-hardened nickel-base and cobalt-base carbide-hardened superalloys. Solid-solution superalloys such as Hastelloy X also may show...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... the onset temperature of decomposition of the polymer. Quantitatively, these onset temperatures are not useful for comparing the long-term stability of fabricated products, because the materials are generally molten at the beginning of decomposition ( Ref 5 ). However, a comparison of the obtained TGA...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... specified by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code based on long-term data that became available in the mid-1960’s. The last but not the least important factor adversely affecting component life is the in-service degradation of components due to various microstructural changes and embrittlement phenomena...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... corrosion factors. Inaccuracies in extrapolation of short-time data to estimate the long-time performance at the design stage are also major contributing factors in creep failures. Such extrapolations are often optimistic and do not take into account microstructural-degradation phenomena such as coarsening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... inspection made it possible (and attractive in some cases) to carry out meaningful inspections while the plant was still running using advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques. Inspection can generate large quantities of data in terms of visual inspection reports, NDE reports, photographs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... of the rotor as well as potential degradation occurring with long-term service; and (4) during an overhaul, the bore hole permits nondestructive inspection of the shaft – a procedure difficult to perform from the outside surface of a bladed shaft. Arguments against having a bore hole have been presented...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.9781627083409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... in a hydrodesulfurizer unit ( Ref 6 ). In addition to service embrittlement, some embrittlement from slow cooling after postweld heat treatment during vessel fabrication is also inevitable. Fig. 7.5. Effect of long-term service exposure on the fracture toughness of 2¼Cr-1Mo steel ( Ref 6 ). Temper...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... temperature, increasing stress, and decreasing fiber modulus. However, under long-term loading, aramid composites, like glass fiber composites, are subject to stress rupture, that is, failure of the fiber under sustained loading with little or no accompanying creep. The stress rupture performance of Kevlar 49...