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liquid-to-solid phase transformation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter provides a short introduction to phase transformations, namely, the liquid-to-solid phase transformations that occur during solidification and the solid-to-solid transformations that are important in processing, such as heat treatment. It also introduces the concept...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid-to-solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... for stable austenite by depressing the alpha-gamma transformation temperature while also raising the gamma-delta transformation temperature. The systems show no iron-rich compounds (or solid solution in the alloying element) at concentrations encroaching on the alpha or delta fields. The two-phase (γ + δ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... obtained. An important variable is solid solubility. Alloying (solute) elements influence solid-to-liquid and solid-to-solid transformations. These effects (solubility limits) and the distinctly different structures (phases) observed can be shown conveniently in a graphic representation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... on the changes in the volume of the system which is accounted for by the term PV . At a constant pressure, the heat absorbed or given off is given by the change in H . When dealing with condensed phases (solids or liquids), the term PV is usually very small in comparison to E , and therefore H ≈ E...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of crystallization. Fig. 12.2 Ideal freezing curve of a pure metal. Source: Ref 12.1 Fig. 12.3 Natural freezing and melting curves of a pure metal. Source: Ref 12.2 as published in Ref 12.1 The continual freezing that occurs during cooling through a two-phase liquid-plus-solid field...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... metallic liquid and solid solutions, where components can mix on any spatial position that is available to the phase. For example, in a simple body-centered cubic phase, any of the components could occupy any of the atomic sites that define the cubic structure, as shown in Fig. 13.1 . In a gas or liquid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of pressure or temperature, the phases may be solid, liquid, or gas. Alloys, which contain two or more elements, also have solid, liquid, and gas phases, but solid alloys may also contain phases with different crystalline structures. Second phases are precipitates that form when a solute alloying element...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... is called eutectic. Fig. 2.4 The lead-tin phase diagram. Source: Ref 2.1 The reaction L → α + β on cooling through 183° is a eutectic reaction that on cooling, a liquid transforms into two solid phases at the same time. When a liquid containing 62% Sn cools, the α and β phases form...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., then the alloy is either an unsaturated homogeneous liquid or a solid solution with the composition of the alloy. A point in a two-phase field indicates that both the phases are saturated solutions, which could be liquids, solids, or a liquid and a solid. If the composition of the alloy is changed at the same...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and arrangement of elements in a material of a given chemical composition. A phase is a physically homogeneous state of matter with a given chemical composition and structure. The simplest examples are the three states of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) of a pure metal. The three phases of a pure metal have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... the beryllium that remains in solid solution. It has also been reported that there may be a metastable miscibility gap in the liquid-plus-solid region of the diagram. If this is so, it allows a rapidly cooled alloy to separate into two phases in the liquid state and the subsequent formation of a fine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... steel STEEL IS MADE by dissolving carbon into iron. Pure iron melts at an extremely high temperature, 1540 °C (2800 °F), and at such temperatures, carbon readily dissolves into the molten iron, generating a liquid solution. When the liquid solution solidifies, it generates a solid solution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... space. Above the liquidus, all alloys are fully molten; below the solidus, all are completely solid. As in binary systems, the two-phase region, L + α, is composed of tie lines joining conjugate liquid and solid phases. In the ternary system, however, the tie lines are not confined to a 2-D area...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., where the initial (parent) phase may be either a liquid or a crystalline solid. Solid-state invariant reactions are a category of heterogeneous phase transformations that involve moving reaction boundaries and phase separation. Invariant transformations differ from precipitation reactions in that all...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... incongruent crystallization as αAl grains and massive particles of the silicon. At the next stage, these phases constitute the binary (αAl + Si) eutectic. The morphology of the particular crystals is formed during their growth from the liquid determined by solid-liquid (S-L) interface topography and thereby...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of compositions are considered to be intermediate or secondary solid solutions. Intermediate phases can be classified based on their melting behavior, either congruent or incongruent melting phases. On heating, an incongruent melting phase decomposes into two different phases, usually one solid and one liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... V volume ν R growth rate of solid phase (crystal), Δ x /Δ t V v volume fraction of phase ν T cooling rate, Δ T /Δ t θ wetting angle ξ crystallographic factor Δ C difference in concentration Δ G driving force of transformation, Gibbs free energy Δ G N...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the relationship between cooling rate, grain size, grain shape, and phase structures. It explains how the transition from liquid to solid state creates the conditions under which microsegregation occurs, and how it impacts the distribution of alloying elements, carbides, and inclusions. The link between...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...), a peritectic reaction, defined on cooling as a solid phase combining with liquid phase to form a single solid phase. At 1148 °C (2100 °F): Liquid = Fe 3 C + γ-iron, a eutectic reaction, defined on cooling as a liquid phase forming two solid phases. At 727 °C (1335 °F): γ-iron = α ferrite + Fe 3 C...