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liquid-solid phase transformation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter provides a short introduction to phase transformations, namely, the liquid-to-solid phase transformations that occur during solidification and the solid-to-solid transformations that are important in processing, such as heat treatment. It also introduces the concept...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid-to-solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... structures in iron-base alloys and multicomponent systems. microstructure peritectic systems peritectic transformation SIMILAR TO THE EUTECTIC group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a new solid phase on cooling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the relationship between cooling rate, grain size, grain shape, and phase structures. It explains how the transition from liquid to solid state creates the conditions under which microsegregation occurs, and how it impacts the distribution of alloying elements, carbides, and inclusions. The link between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... 2797 3000 5432 Nickel 1453 2647 2730 4946 Titanium 1668 3034 3260 5900 Vanadium 1900 3452 3000 5432 Zirconium 1852 3366 3580 6476 On cooling, energy is removed, vapors condense to the liquid phase, and, at lower temperatures, liquids transform to the solid phase...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of pressure or temperature, the phases may be solid, liquid, or gas. Alloys, which contain two or more elements, also have solid, liquid, and gas phases, but solid alloys may also contain phases with different crystalline structures. Second phases are precipitates that form when a solute alloying element...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... are completely miscible in each other in both the liquid and solid states. Calculation methods are shown that allow the prediction of the phases present, the chemical compositions of the phases present, and the amounts of phases present. 4.1 Binary Systems Phase diagrams and the systems they describe...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... the invariant point, m , where liquid 1 ( L 1 ) transforms to another liquid ( L 2 ) and solid solution (α). Adapted from Ref 7.1 Liquid copper and liquid lead are completely soluble in each other at high temperatures. However, as shown in the Fig. 7.2 phase diagram, alloys containing between 36...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... Source: Ref 2.1 The reaction L → α + β on cooling through 183° is a eutectic reaction that on cooling, a liquid transforms into two solid phases at the same time. When a liquid containing 62% Sn cools, the α and β phases form a eutectic structure of alternating platelets as sketched...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... for by the term PV . At a constant pressure, the heat absorbed or given off is given by the change in H . When dealing with condensed phases (solids or liquids), the term PV is usually very small in comparison to E , and therefore H ≈ E . Finally, the entropy, S , is a measure of the randomness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... The transformation from liquid to solid is a phase transformation between the liquid phase and the solid phase. Phase transformations that occur on cooling liberate heat. When austenite transforms to ferrite on cooling, there is a solid-solid (rather than a solid-liquid) phase transformation, and heat is liberated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... structure of metals and their role in mechanical deformation, annealing, precipitation, and diffusion. It describes the concept of solid solutions and the effect of temperature on solubility and phase transformations. The chapter also discusses the formation of solidification structures, the use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and arrangement of elements in a material of a given chemical composition. A phase is a physically homogeneous state of matter with a given chemical composition and structure. The simplest examples are the three states of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) of a pure metal. The three phases of a pure metal have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., where the initial (parent) phase may be either a liquid or a crystalline solid. Solid-state invariant reactions are a category of heterogeneous phase transformations that involve moving reaction boundaries and phase separation. Invariant transformations differ from precipitation reactions in that all...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... treatment. Steel is notable, because it is very responsive to hardening and strengthening by heat treatment. Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structure Atoms interact with one another to form different states (or phases) of matter. The four fundamental states of matter are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdktmse.9781627084703
EISBN: 978-1-62708-470-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdktmse.t56100019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-470-3
... Portion of iron-carbon phase diagram Solution Fig. A25 Microstructure development for a 0.25 wt% carbon steel from 1700 to 1250 °C (3090 to 2280 °F) Note the transformation of δ-ferrite to austenite (γ) solid. This transformation is typical of peritectic solidification. The liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... steel masses must be transformed into solid products with the required shapes and dimensions. Three main process families are responsible for the majority of the transformation of liquid steel into the required shapes and dimensions: foundry casting, ingot casting, and continuous casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... temperature as coordinates, which de ne for each cooling curve the beginning and end of the transformation of the initial phase. continuous precipitation Precipitation from a supersaturated solid solution in which the precipitate particles grow by long-range diffusion without recrystallization of the matrix...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.9781627084567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7