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liquid quenchants

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Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 10 Typical surface and center cooling curves indicating the different heat-transfer mechanisms (stages) from the hot metal to the cooler vaporizable liquid quenchant More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., because heat transfer through a gas is relatively slow. For a given quenchant, two main factors increase cooling rate: increased agitation of the liquid and reduction in the temperature of the bath. A relatively new technique has been accepted (ISO 9950) for characterizing the cooling rate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... needed to get the desired microstructure. Typically, quenchants are liquids or gases. Common liquid quenchants are: Oil that may contain a variety of additives Water Aqueous polymer solutions Water that may contain salt or caustic additives Most common gaseous quenchants...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... unaffected by the quenching medium. This can be accomplished by insulating the area to be protected or by allowing the quenchant to contact only those areas of the part that are to be quenched. Spray quenching: Streams of quenching liquid are directed at high pressure, up to 825 kPa (120 psi), to local...
Image
Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 4-1 (a) Schematic illustration of the three stages of cooling upon quenching a steel into a liquid. (b) Photographs of a cylinder quenched into a polymer quenchant, showing the three stages of cooling. ((a) from J. Bodin and S. Segerberg in Quenching and Distortion Control , G.E. Totten More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the quenching process and its adaptation to induction heat treating. It describes the three stages of quenching, the cooling characteristics of various types of quenchants, and the details of nearly a dozen compatible quenching methods. It also explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the nucleate boiling stage. During this period, the vapor envelope collapses, and high heat extraction rates are achieved that are associated with nucleate boiling of the quenchant on the metal surface. Heat is rapidly removed from the surface as liquid quenchant contacts the metal surface and is vaporized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... carbon in steel and proportion of martensite formed at a given temperature. ( 2 ) The most common method of hardening steel involves quenching from the austenitizing solutioning temperature in a liquid medium that rapidly extracts heat. The rate of cooling in the part depends on the heat removal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... is aimed at fully documenting and ensuring compliance with the goal of continuous quality improvement for enhanced customer satisfaction. Required and selected actual work instructions for various equipment, temperature accuracy program, preventative maintenance program, and quenchant maintenance...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... in contact with the quenchant at low temperatures (e.g., 25°C), the liquid in contact with the steel immediately boils, forming a vapor blanket around the steel part. The relatively low thermal conductivity of the vapor prevents the steel from cooling rapidly. This is stage one of cooling. For rapid cooling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... water is required because all of the electrical energy consumed is essentially transferred in the form of heat to the cooling water. Except for small radiation losses and residual heat left after quenching, even the heat produced in the workpiece is absorbed by the quenchant, which in turn needs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... hardness number. See Brinell. 302 / Practical Induction Heat Treating, Second Edition boiling stage. The second stage of cooling when quenching a part. (The first stage is the vapor stage.) The quenchant that is in contact with the part boils until the temperature of the surface of the part passes below...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.9781627083119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
.... There was a liquid ammonia tank and liquid nitrogen tank on site and all furnaces had both manual and automatic nitrogen purge systems. The two-zone batch atmosphere furnaces as well as two companion tempering furnaces were kept in certification to AMS 2750. All furnaces had automatic programmed cycle and carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... with vaporizable liquid quenchants, including water, oil, and aqueous polymer solutions (Ref 32) . Most liquid vaporizable quenchants exhibit boiling temperatures between 100 and 300 °C at atmospheric pressure. When parts are quenched in these fluids, surface wetting is usually time-dependent, which influences...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... though eutectoid and eutectic reactions are both invariant transformations, diffusion in solids during a eutectoid reaction is much slower than in liquids. Therefore, in practical situations nonequilibrium conditions may have more important implications in the eutectoid solid-state reactions than...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... from the surface as liquid quenchant contacts the metal surface and is vaporized. The liquid cooling stage begins when the temperature of the metal surface is reduced below the boiling point of the quenching liquid. Below this temperature, boiling stops and cooling takes place by conduction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... techniques and microhardness testing, they are reproducible and accurate. The depth to 0.40% carbon has been used as if it is the same as the HRC 50 specification. However, this can be erroneous because 0.40% carbon can be quenched to a higher or lower hardness than HRC 50, depending on the quenchant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... is accurate, timely, and germane. One of the greatest problems of nondestructive inspection has been misapplication, which usually means that the wrong information was supplied. Louis Cartz, in the ASM book Nondestructive Testing ( Ref 4 ), cites that liquid penetrant and magnetic particle inspection...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...? If so, check the operating atmosphere or liquid for acidic content and adjust the process parameters accordingly. The corrosion may also be generated by an uncontrolled salt bath, gas mixture, or plasma condition. If this is the case, check that the salt bath composition is within specified operating...