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liquid junction potential

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... and junctions; making suggestions about casting design to eliminate distortion; optimizing the gating design for slag-free metal; and establishing the feeding techniques to eliminate shrink porosity. This chapter provides the guidelines for these responsibilities. In addition, the guidelines for the use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... then converted to another. Thermocouples consist of two dissimilar metal wires that are metallurgically homogeneous. They are joined at one end—the measuring, or hot, junction. The other end, which is connected to the copper wire of the measuring instrument circuitry, is called the reference, or cold...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and a second metal, without the use of an external source of current. contact potential. The potential difference at the junction of two dissimilar substances. continuity bond. A metallic connection that provides electrical continuity between metal structures. conversion coating. A coating consisting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... 8.7 is an example of a block mold analysis that predicted the potential shrinkage at the rim–spoke junction. Water-cooled Anviloy chills were designed at the rim–spoke junctions. The analysis also showed that the hub runs very hot. This prompted the design of a top cooling ring on the hub that helped...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... be incorporated into the mold or into a core by ramming sand around the chill during molding or coremaking. Chills are often placed on bosses, ribs, or junctions where their increased mass disrupts directional solidification ( Figure 7-6 ). In effect, the chill neutralizes the hot spot and the casting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... electrochemical corrosion circuit, using it to explain how electric potential differences drive the corrosion process and how corrosion rates vary in proportion to current density. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the importance of corrosion products, such as oxides and hydroxides, and how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... for discussion in this chapter: temperature, T , strain, ϵ , and magnetic field strength, H . These are the most critical variables in the experimental determination of the properties of materials at low temperatures. In addition to these three, pressure, fluid flow, fluid density, and liquid level...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... and, instead of contributing to the formation of a smooth and homogeneous surface, provoke an undercut discontinuity called a cold junction; 2) the solidification process occurs too far from the metal flow coming from the feeding/distribution place, where the liquid temperature is lower than the necessary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... the potential of becoming simultaneous to a great degree, thereby drastically reducing the design to manufacturing time cycle. Within this new environment, the casting process fits ideally, with its freedom from design constraints and its requirement for actual models (patterns). This chapter will give...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., there is general agreement about what leads to a good adhesive bond. Surface roughness plays a key role. The rougher the surface, the more surface area is available for the liquid adhesive to penetrate and lock onto. However, for this penetration to be effective, the adhesive must wet the surface, a function...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., and location. The actual physical FA procedure will not be described here as this topic is addressed in other sections of this desk reference [5] . Physics of Junction Failure It has been shown that there is similarity in damage resulting from ESD due to HBM or MM [6] . This is due to the common...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... into the critical surfaces to avoid the potential for metal flow lines. While choosing gating at parting plane, avoid gate metal impingement on the die steel or a metal core. This is to minimize heat checking and poor metal flow pattern. Providing adequate parting plane periphery, to allow space for the gates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... to expose open pores and cracks, the presence of minute cracks is apparent ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 5 Cracks and unbounded particles at the junction (radius) of a horizontal flange and vertical hub resulting from shear during compaction, unetched. Source: Ref 1 Liquid Penetrant Crack Detection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.9781627084598
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... require the sand to be reclaimed and recycled, to avoid dumping at landfills. Mechanical or thermal reclamations are energy intensive and add to the process cost. Vertical sprue has the potential to increase velocity and turbulence, leading to higher potential for oxide creation and entrainment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.../liquid interface, across which an additional potential difference exists. Thus, any potential measuring instrument connected between the metal and the probe will indicate only a difference in potential, and absolute values of the individual half-cell potentials cannot be determined. The discussion shows...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... these flaws include visual, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current, and radiographic inspection. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the characteristics, process steps, applications, advantages, and limitations of these methods. It also describes the flaws caused...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... isothermal and vertical sections as well as liquid projections. It also explains how diffusion couples provide a window into local equilibria and identifies typical phase diagram construction errors along with problems stemming from phase-boundary curvatures and congruent transformations. phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... If any damage or flaw is present, the laser is vulnerable to potential failure. Substantial work on such lasers goes into screening through burn-in and visual examination. Such lasers include 850 nm GaAs vertical cavity lasers (VCSELs) and 1.3um AlGaInAs-on-InP (high temperature) in plane lasers...