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liquid iron-carbon alloys

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the dashed lines represent the iron-graphite diagram. Notice that, whereas the Fe-Fe 3 C eutectic occurs at 1148 °C (2100 °F), the iron-graphite eutectic occurs at 1154 °C (2110 °F), 6 °C higher. This means that it is possible to form graphite from iron-carbon liquid at temperatures from 1054 to 1149 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... practices have changed over time, and describes secondary refining processes such as degassing, homogenization, rinsing, and remelting. blast furnace electric arc furnace The classical definition of steel is “an iron-carbon alloy with up to [about] 2% carbon” ( Ref 1 ). This limit is taken...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... It explains why manganese is sometimes added to steel and how unintended consequences, such as the development of sulfide stringers, can offset the benefits. It also examines the effect of alloying elements on the iron-carbon phase diagram, particularly their effect on transformation temperatures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., d , of the dendrites. The noniron atoms deliberately added to the iron to make steels, such as manganese, carbon, and alloying elements, become microsegregated between the dendrites in the as-solidified steel. This phenomenon can lead to formation of particles of compounds in the austenite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... aluminum. Extremely high corrosion rates of iron-, nickel-, and cobalt-base alloys in molten aluminum are illustrated by the laboratory test results shown in Table 16.1 ( Ref 11 ). Samples of carbon steel and iron-and nickel-base alloys were consumed in 4 h at 760 °C (1400 °F). Cobalt-base alloys, which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... nominal composition alloy at a given temperature. For steel, the important equilibrium phase diagram is the iron/cementite diagram (see Chapter 2 ). The graphic shows the effect of increasing temperature and carbon additions to iron, and the resultant phase structures that are in equilibrium. This graph...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of the solubility of carbon in austenite, the reduction of carbon solubility in the liquid. The projection of this figure in the % C-T plane is shown in Fig. 17.8 . Fig. 17.8 Stable iron-carbon phase diagram indicating the approximate effect of silicon additions on the diagram. Silicon decreases...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of a 2.5% C alloy can be described using the iron-carbon phase diagram shown in Fig. 24.6 . At point x 1 , the alloy consists of a uniform solution of carbon dissolved in liquid iron. When the liquidus line is crossed at point x 2 , solidification begins by the formation of austenite crystals...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of alloy content for various types of alloy cast irons Table 10.7 Ranges of alloy content for various types of alloy cast irons Description Composition, wt% (a) Matrix structure, as-cast (c) TC (b) Mn P S Si Ni Cr Mo Cu Abrasion-resistant white irons Low-carbon white...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
..., so only one gaseous phase is possible in a material. Single-phase solids include brass (a solid solution of zinc in copper, with zinc atoms occupying lattice sites), sodium chloride crystals, glass, and polyethylene. Most plain-carbon steels are two-phase materials, consisting of an iron-rich...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... (fcc) lattice of aluminum. Fig. 2.31 Equilibrium binary solid solubility as a function of temperature for alloying elements most frequently added to aluminum Fig. 2.33 Solubility curve of carbon in the ferritic (body-centered cubic) portion of the iron-carbon phase diagram. Note...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., and cast irons. In the past, steel has been described as an alloy of iron and carbon. Today, this description is no longer applicable since in some very important steels, such as interstitial-free steels and some stainless steels, carbon is considered an impurity and is present in quantities of only a few...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... with the molten pig iron to oxidize undesirable elements, including excess carbon, manganese, and silicon from the ore, limestone, and other impurities such as sulfur and phosphorus. Carbon in the steel reacts with iron oxide to form iron and carbon monoxide: (Eq 2) FeO + C → Fe + CO Titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... are particularly potent hardeners in this respect. Fig. 2.9 Representative interstitial sites in unit cells. Source: Ref 2.3 as published in Ref 2.2 Carbon, nitrogen, and boron are all important alloying elements in steels. Interstitial carbon in iron forms the basis of steel hardening. Indeed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... 2.3 Portion of the iron-carbon diagram Fig. 2.4 Face-centered cubic crystal structure (unit cell) Fig. 2.5 Body-centered cubic crystal structure (unit cell) Fig. 2.7 A hypereutectoid Fe-1.4% C binary alloy showing proeutectoid cementite (and cementite needles...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... strength. Source: Ref 14 Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the processes used in manufacturing to thermally alter the properties of metals and alloys. It begins with a review of the iron-carbon system, the factors that affect hardenability, and the use of continuous cooling transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys , Vol 1 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1990 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.9781627081610 • Samuels L.E. , Optical Microscopy of Carbon Steels , American Society for Metals , 1980 • Thielsch H. , Defects and Failures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and austenite must grow simultaneously from the liquid, austenite surrounds the spherical graphite nuclei (see Chapter 17, “Cast Irons” ). The solidification progress now depends on carbon diffusion through austenite so it can reach the graphite nodules. This influences the morphology of the solid phases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Below 910 °C (1673 °F), it again has a bcc crystal structure called ferrite, designated as α. The fact that steel can be hardened is a direct result of the eutectoid reaction in iron-carbon alloys. Just as a eutectic reaction involves the decomposition of a liquid solution, a eutectoid reaction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... region of the iron-carbon diagram ( Ref 3.24 ). The compositions of the delta ferrite, austenite, and liquid participating in the peritectic solidification are given respectively by C δ , C γ and C liq . The effects of alloying elements on peritectic-phase compositions have been calculated ( Ref 3.24...