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liquid bath furnaces

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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 1 Principal furnace types for liquid salt bath nitriding. (a) and (b) Externally heated. (c) and (d) Internally heated, with immersed alloy electrodes and metal liner or submerged electrodes with ceramic tile lining More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., and disadvantages of furnaces classified based on the heat transfer medium employed. The types of furnaces covered are batch-type, continuous-type, liquid bath, fluidized bed, and vacuum. The subsequent sections provide information on furnace parts, fixtures, quenching mediums, and quenching systems. The final...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., the amount of dragout. Furnaces In general, all of the salt bath furnaces discussed and illustrated in Chapter 4 are suitable for salt bath carburizing. Advantages and Limitations of Liquid Carburizing Two specific advantages of liquid carburizing are realized. Selective carburizing can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Fig. 1 Principal furnace types for liquid salt bath nitriding. (a) and (b) Externally heated. (c) and (d) Internally heated, with immersed alloy electrodes and metal liner or submerged electrodes with ceramic tile lining Fig. 2 Ferritic nodular iron, salt bath nitrided 90 min at 580...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... of these advances are that: The electrodes can be replaced without bailing out the furnace. Immersed electrodes allow more power capacity to be put into the furnace, thus increasing production. Immersed electrodes permit easy start-up when the bath is solid. A simple gas torch is used to melt a liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... the cathodic contact with the furnace hearth and nitriding can take place. The case depth will be slightly more shallow at the point of contact but not to a significant degree. Another method for selective nitriding entails partial immersion into the salt bath so that only the immersed areas are nitrided...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... Source: Ref 1 Fig. 2 Liquid-like behavior of gas fluidized beds. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 3 External resistance heating. (a) Fluidized-bed furnace with external heating by electrical resistance elements: (1) pivoting cover in two parts; (2) insulation; (3) refractory material; (4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... that the refractories contain the melt at the high temperatures experienced, it would be ideal if the refractories were inert and did not react with the molten steel bath. The refractories used strongly influence the type of processing and have given their names to the arc furnace practices in common use, i.e., basic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Liquid 815–980 1500–1800 50–1525 2–60 50–65 Low-carbon steels, low-carbon alloy steels Faster than pack and gas processes; can pose salt disposal problem; salt baths require frequent maintenance Vacuum 815–1095 1500–2000 75–1525 3–60 50–63 Low-carbon steels, low-carbon alloy steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Fig. 1 The iron-carbon equilibrium diagram. The nitrocarburizing process is carried out in the ferrite region (alpha iron) of the diagram. Fig. 2 Typical time-temperature process cycle for a ferritic nitrocarburizing procedure using salt baths Fig. 3 Work-holding fixtures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... in the inductor channel receives enough energy to be heated, and it is pumped out of the channel by electromagnetic forces into the remainder of the bath, which it heats by mixing. Because only liquid metal can enter the channel around the inductor, channel furnaces must be charged with liquid metal to start...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... is in recognition of Edgar Bain, who in the late 1920s initiated the study of quenched steels by a method called isothermal transformation. Isothermal means constant temperature. This method involves austenitizing thin sections of steel and then quenching them in a liquid quench bath held at the desired isothermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., is critical and may vary between slow furnace cooling to sudden cooling by quenching in water. The Iron-Carbon System Pure iron is allotropic, meaning that its crystalline structure can assume more than one structure. When pure iron solidifies on cooling from its melting point of 1540 °C (2800 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... surface; (b) after brazing, filler metal has melted and flowed to close and seal all gaps. Source: Ref 7.1 Wetting is, perhaps, best explained by the following example. If a solid is immersed in a liquid bath and wetting occurs, then a thin continuous layer of liquid adheres to the solid when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... in a salt bath at 400 °C (750 °F) to obtain a bainitic matrix microstructure for achieving the high strength required for chains. Quenching in a salt bath at 293 °C (559 °F) produces even higher strengths but with slightly lower elongation. 8.1.2 Limitations The casting needs to solidify fully...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... for refining a liquid steel bath, as was the practice until the 1960s and 1970s. To keep these very powerful furnaces “idling,” waiting for metal–slag reactions (which are limited mostly by transport kinetics) to happen became economically inviable. This led to transferring a part of the refining operations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... nitrocarburizing, the initiating source must be established. For example, is the corrosion originating from an external environmental source? If so, check the operating atmosphere or liquid for acidic content and adjust the process parameters accordingly. The corrosion may also be generated by an uncontrolled salt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Fig. 1 Precleaning methods for gas and salt bath ferritic nitrocarburizing Abstract Surface cleanliness requirements depend on which nitrocarburizing process is selected for component treatment. This chapter discusses the processes involved in some of the more commonly used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... In the majority of melting operations, after the liquid metal is produced it is cast into molds. At this point it becomes either an ingot or a casting upon solidification. Use of the term ingot is reserved for the furnace output in molded form that is intended for shaping into a marketable material through...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... for austenitizing, although the liquid quench system for austempering is the same for both systems. The two systems are: Atmospheric–salt Salt–salt 10.6.1 Atmospheric–Salt System In the atmospheric–salt system, castings are austenitized in a furnace with a controlled atmosphere to prevent scaling...