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liquid bath furnaces

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., and disadvantages of furnaces classified based on the heat transfer medium employed. The types of furnaces covered are batch-type, continuous-type, liquid bath, fluidized bed, and vacuum. The subsequent sections provide information on furnace parts, fixtures, quenching mediums, and quenching systems. The final...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... (1750 °F), most furnace equipment has an increasingly limited life, causing the carburizing temperature to be limited. Carburizing may be done in a gaseous environment (gas carburizing), a liquid salt bath (liquid carburizing), or with all the surfaces of the workpiece covered with a solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Liquid 815–980 1500–1800 50–1525 2–60 50–65 Low-carbon steels, low-carbon alloy steels Faster than pack and gas processes; can pose salt disposal problem; salt baths require frequent maintenance Vacuum 815–1095 1500–2000 75–1525 3–60 50–63 Low-carbon steels, low-carbon alloy steels...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., is critical and may vary between slow furnace cooling to sudden cooling by quenching in water. Pure iron is allotropic, meaning that its crystalline structure can assume more than one structure. When pure iron solidifies on cooling from its melting point...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... on the molten metal that stirs it, assuring excellent mixing in the metal bath. The two types of induction furnaces are channel furnaces and coreless furnaces. Cupolas are vertical shaft furnaces used for melting cast iron. Although similar in principle to blast furnaces, they are not miniature blast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... is, perhaps, best explained by the following example. If a solid is immersed in a liquid bath and wetting occurs, then a thin continuous layer of liquid adheres to the solid when it is removed from the liquid ( Fig. 7.2 ). Technically, the force of adhesion between the solid and liquid during the wetting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... involves austenitizing thin sections of steel and then quenching them in a liquid quench bath held at the desired isothermal temperature. Because the steel is thin, it will cool to the quench bath temperature throughout its volume before any of the austenite has decomposed. The steel is held in the molten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... for processing these high-carbon grades; see the description of austempering at the end of this chapter. Tools with cutting edges are sometimes heated in liquid baths to the lowest temperatures at which the part can be hardened and are then quenched in brine. The fast heating of the liquid bath plus the low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...-controlled atmosphere or in vacuum furnaces. Alternatively, other atmosphere gases can be used, such as purified exothermic gas, lean exothermic gas, and other nitrogen-based gas blends. Exothermic atmospheres are not suitable and will decarburize high-carbon steels. Molten salt baths are also used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... is often more efficient for small parts because, instead of furnace cooling, the parts can be transferred between constant-temperature molten salt baths. The steel is also protected from scaling and oxidation by the molten bath. These salts are various mixtures of compounds such as alkali metal hydroxides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... In the majority of melting operations, after the liquid metal is produced it is cast into molds. At this point it becomes either an ingot or a casting upon solidification. Use of the term ingot is reserved for the furnace output in molded form that is intended for shaping into a marketable material through...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... composition. Heating for austenitizing can be accomplished in a salt bath or in an electrically heated, gas-fired, or oil-fired furnace. The temperature to which the casting must be heated is determined by the transformation range of the particular gray iron of which it is made. A formula for determining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... be dangerous Liquid Diffused carbon and possibly nitrogen 815–980 (1500–1800) 50 μm–1.5 mm (2–60 mils) 50–65 (a) Low-carbon steels, low-carbon alloy steels Faster than pack and gas processes, can pose salt disposal problem, salt baths require frequent maintenance Vacuum Diffused carbon 815–1090...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., but with individual tools that can be conveniently handled in liquid baths or other conventional furnaces, it enables substantial savings in time. Cycle annealing for four types of tool steel are: Steel Treatment O1 Heat to 730 °C (1350 °F), hold for 4 h; heat to 780 °C (1440 °F), hold for 2 h; cool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... steel is heated to transform it to austenite, and then it is quenched into a liquid quench bath, usually molten salt, held at the desired isothermal temperature. Because the steel is thin, it will cool to the quench bath temperature throughout its volume before any of the austenite has decomposed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... not Newtons but “normal – STP- (conditions)”). These developments made the EAF less than economical for refining a liquid steel bath, as was the practice until the 1960s and 1970s. To keep these very powerful furnaces “idling,” waiting for metal–slag reactions (which are limited mostly by transport...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... the presses and auxiliary equipment for tube extrusion, induction furnaces for billet processing, handling systems for copper and aluminum alloy products, extrusion cooling systems, and age-hardening ovens. Next, the chapter describes the principles and applications of equipment for the production of aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., then furnace cooling through the critical temperature range at a specified cooling rate. The aim is to break the continuous carbide network of high-carbon steels. It improves machinability. Partial (intercritical) annealing Heating within the critical temperature range ( Ac 1 - Ac 3 ), followed by slow...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and reverts back to alumina. Once the oxide becomes entrapped in the liquid metal, it is difficult to remove and remains dispersed in the liquid metal. The main source of oxygen is moisture from the furnace charge. Oxides are removed by fluxing with gases, solids, or molten salts. Various filtration methods...