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limit diagrams

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Isothermal and continuous cooling transformation (CT) diagrams help users map out diffusion-controlled phase transformations of austenite to various mixtures of ferrite and cementite. This chapter discusses the application as well as limitations of these engineering tools in the context of heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter explains how the presence of intermediate phases affects the melting behavior of binary alloys and the transformations that occur under different rates of cooling. It begins by examining the phase diagrams of magnesium-lead and copper-zinc, noting some of the complexities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the use of phase diagrams in alloy design, processing, and performance assessment. The examples cover both ferrous and nonferrous metals and a variety of goals and objectives. The chapter also identifies limitations and pitfalls associated with the use of phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... they reveal about the load-carrying characteristics of engineering materials. It then discusses the use of failure criteria and the determination of yielding and fracture limits. It goes on to describe the mechanisms and appearances of brittle and ductile fractures and stress rupture, providing detailed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... lower ductility than DP and TRIP steels but they still have good ductility for their strength level. Figure 6.6 shows forming limit diagrams (FLDs) for various types of CP steels. Forming limit diagram levels decrease with increase in the tensile strength of CP steel types. This behavior is expected...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... types of DP steel. Source: Ref 5.1 General formability is related to the ductility of metals and alloys. Forming limit diagrams (FLDs) are commonly used to define maximum allowable strains without necking for different out-of-plane deformation paths, such as uniaxial, biaxial, and plane strain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... exhaustive sources of information, are certainly reservoirs of knowledge of current practice. The most widely used summary of a material’s formability is contained in its forming limit diagram (FLD), developed by Keeler and Backofen ( Ref 5 ). This diagram shows the locus of failure under varying strain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... stretch forming of metals. This test is believed to be more accurate than the forming limit diagram test in assessing the formability of alloys that undergo stress-induced phase transformation. The phase transformation and the resulting high strain-hardening rate in SS 900 are responsible for the more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... elongation determines the extent to which a metal can be stretched before failure. Percent total elongation measures the formability of the material. Hemispherical punch forming tests provide two measurements of formability known as limiting dome height (LDH) and forming limit diagram (FLD). The two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... in part design to optimize weight and structural performance. Forming limit diagrams (FLDs) are used to assess the formability of metals during punch forming. They define the maximum allowable strains for different deformation paths. Figure 7.9 shows FLDs for TRIP 690, TRIP 780, and DP 600 steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... of two grades of AHSS (DP600 and TRIP700), HSLA340, SS304, and mild steel, as determined by the forming limit diagram (FLD), is shown in Fig. 3.12 . It can be seen that only stainless steel SS304 has, for the most part, a higher formability than mild steel. The formability of the other grades of HSS...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... and still the subject of current research. Questions of scientific interest include: Why does ISF show extended forming limits compared to traditional forming limit diagrams? What is the predominant deformation mechanism: stretching, shear, or bending? What can be done to reduce sheet thinning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... This chapter describes in limited detail these metalworking technologies: Bulk forming of metals in the production of wrought (worked) products Sheet forming and bending of metals Powder processing to consolidate and densify powders into net-shape parts Material removal processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... traditionally been used in practice to estimate proximity to failure. This is an approximate method, because the limit of thinning can vary with strain path. Prediction of biaxial strain has been proposed ( Ref 8.17 ) to estimate failure in the form of a forming limit diagram. The determination of a forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.9781627083164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... solution (b) Phase diagrams show the regions of stability of the various phases of a system at equilibrium. Equilibrium between two phases can be described by the limits of solubility in the two phases. A phase diagram also may be thought of as a map of permissible phases. Equilibrium between two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... larger area. Fig. 3.5 Extension of the iron-carbon phase diagram to hypereutectoid steel alloys (%C greater than 0.77) The line on the diagram labeled A cm defines the solubility limit for carbon in austenite. Notice that at 820 °C (1508 °F), this line gives a point at 1 wt% C, which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... production ( Ref 3.11 ). To predict the defect of tearing during finite-element simulation, percentage thinning, or the forming limit diagram (FLD), is commonly used. Percentage thinning calculates the change in thickness over the initial thickness at every time step or punch progression. The FLD shows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... can be quite useful. Each control method can be evaluated based on the initial potential-pH condition for the metal and environment. The preceding discussion emphasizes the utility and wide application of potential-pH diagrams. However, their limitations must also be understood. Potential-pH...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... or limited solid solutions. They are generally designated with the Greek letters α (alpha) and β (beta), although some systems are now in use that denote the terminal elements by enclosing the elemental chemical symbol in parentheses. Fig. 2.10 Binary phase diagram of metals A and B, which...