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light microscopy

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
...×). Figure 2-15 Appearance of the surface of austenitic stainless steel at each step of the sample preparation sequence, 90 ×. Abstract Abstract This chapter explains how to prepare metallographic samples for light microscopy and how to anticipate and avoid related problems. It describes standard...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... interference contrast device R. Figure 4-25 Light-section microscope and schematic of the light path. (Courtesy of C. Zeiss, Inc.) Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the tools and techniques of light microscopy and how they are used in the study of materials. It reviews the basic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.9781627082914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
.... 250×. (c) 0.4% C (0.43C-0.18Si-0.75Mn). Compare with Fig. 10.5 (Part 2) (b) . Austenitized at 850 °C, water quenched, tempered 48 h at 500 °C. Ethereal picral. 250×. Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the effects that can be observed by light microscopy when a steel in the hardened...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...Abstract Abstract This appendix is a compilation of terms and definitions related to light microscopy of carbon steels. light microscopy ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter covers the early studies and various discoveries by metals researchers to study the internal structure of metals. The topics covered include light microscopy, phase diagrams, X-ray diffraction, principles of precipitation hardening, and dislocation theory...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter explains what some of the terms used in physical metallurgy are intended to mean and how these meanings affect the manner in which the subject is treated throughout the book. light microscopy The wide range of properties that can be obtained in steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... transformed at 500 °C. 275 HV. Picral. 500×. (e) Scanning electron micrograph of a structure that appeared similar in light microscopy to Fig. 9.13 (Part 2) (b) . Etched in picral. 1500×. (f) Scanning electron micrograph of a structure that appeared similar in light microscopy to Fig. 9.13 (Part 2) (c...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... with structural changes that can be detected by light microscopy. It is not our purpose to discuss the factors involved in any detail, but the later discussion of the microstructural features that do influence these properties will be assisted if the important principles are outlined. The general problem...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... (continuous casting) that can be fed directly into a continuous hot-strip mill. There are significant differences in the segregation patterns developed in the products of the ingot and continuous-casting routes, but these differences are not normally discernible by qualitative light microscopy. The most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...Abstract Abstract This appendix contains a table that correlates magnification values with true distance per centimeter as observed in light photomicrographs. light photomicrograph magnification ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... another. Also, relative proportions of phases seen in light microscopy relate to area percentages, but are directly related to volume percentages if the phases are uniformly distributed. The experimental and theoretical values are in reasonable agreement at carbon contents from 0.2 to 0.4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... on the composition, temperature, and heating time. The detection of small cementite particles such as those illustrated in Fig. 8.2 (Part 2) (h) stretches the capability of light microscopy to its limit. Detectability also depends critically on the contrast developed by the etching and recording processes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... a very small lamellar spacing, indicative of fast cooling, and cannot be resolved by light microscopy. However, its general appearance is identical to that of the products of transformation at temperatures just above the knee of the IT curve for steels of this composition (compare Fig. 9.13 (Part 1) b...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... furnace; tempered at 150 °C. (a) Bisulfite. 100×. (b) Bisulfite. 1000×. (c) Comparatively light etch. Bisulfite. 1000×. (d) to (f) Gas carburized at 900 °C for 45 min in sealed-quench furnace with excessive gas enrichment, cooled to –183 °C, tempered to 150 °C. (d) Bisulfite. 100×. (e...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... to completion after time t f . These times usually are estimated by metallographic examination of specimens quenched in water after progressively longer times at the transformation temperature. During the second quench, any austenite still present is transformed to martensite, which appears light after...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... quantitatively by light microscopy. Nevertheless, these functions can be determined satisfactorily using scanning electron microscopy and have been found to be influenced by a number of factors ( Ref 3 ). However, the phenomena responsible have not yet been satisfactorily analyzed. Fig. 7.1 (Part 4) (j...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the methods and equipment applicable to metallographic studies and discusses the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy. Five major operations for preparation of metallographic specimens are discussed: sectioning, mounting...