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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... Abstract Transmitted-light methods reveal more details of the morphology of fiber-reinforced polymeric composites than are observable using any other available microscopy techniques. This chapter describes the various aspects relating to the selection and preparation of ultrathin-section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... grinding, and etching. It describes macrographic etchants and the features they reveal along with common etching problems and how to avoid them. It explains how to evaluate etching results and how they can be improved using remedial processes such as light grinding. It also discusses photographic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., finishing in the center of the part. Using run-off material as well as light cuts may also be helpful. When drilling or tapping through holes, backup support (brass or free-cutting mild steel fixtures) should be used to minimize breakthrough damage. Any steel scrap can readily be separated magnetically from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... by taking light cuts with the appropriate cutting speed, either with grinding or even hard turning operations. Nitriding produces extremely high surface hardness values. It is essential to use a soft wheel during grinding with small cuts and copious amounts of coolant. Otherwise, localized overheating...
Image
Published: 01 December 2001
Fig. 7 Microstructure of alloy C36000 (free-cutting brass) showing globules of lead (dark) and alpha grains (light) More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 17 Backside SEI image (a) showing an open conductor resulting from an FIB cut and a reflected light image (b) for registration. More
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Published: 01 January 1998
Fig. 17-12 Decarburized layer, composed of ferrite grains, in a hardened T1 steel form-cutting tool. Light micrograph, 500× More
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Published: 01 December 1984
Figure 2-1 Influence of cutting procedure on deformation and damage to porcelain-enameled steel, 45 ×, 2% nital, polarized light. (Courtesy of A. O. Benscoter, Bethlehem Steel Corp.) More
Image
Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 3.6 Micrograph of 240-grit alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) showing the sharp edges and cutting surfaces of grinding and polishing compounds. Polarized light, ¼ wave plate, 10× objective More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 4.8 False indications (artifacts) in a macrograph. Dark and light bands are the result of local hardening due to excessive heating during the sample preparation with a cut-off wheel. Either excessive pressure or insufficient refrigeration was used. Etchant: iodine reagent. More
Image
Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 2.4 Micrographs showing damage from cutting a carbon fiber composite part with an abrasive band saw. (a) A surfacing film can be observed on the surface of the carbon fiber composite. Polarized light, 25× objective. (b) Same view but using epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm excitation, 25 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...-to-subject distance is short and lighting is even more difficult. A variety of films are available for use with this equipment, including black-and-white cut film, color film, and all of the rapid film types. Photography Lighting Lighting for all types of photography is very important. The choices...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... chip-removal applications apply for the Carbide Industry Standardization Committee (CISC) grade indicated. It will be noted that some grades specify the type of metal removal for which they are best suited: C-1, roughing cuts; C-2, general purpose; C-3, light finishing; and C-4, precision boring...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... and damage produced by shearing. (See also Fig. 3-2 in Chap. 3 .) Figure 2-1 Influence of cutting procedure on deformation and damage to porcelain-enameled steel, 45 ×, 2% nital, polarized light. (Courtesy of A. O. Benscoter, Bethlehem Steel Corp.) 2-3.3 Sawing Materials softer than about...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
..., sharp cutting surface. Fig. 2.4 Micrographs showing damage from cutting a carbon fiber composite part with an abrasive band saw. (a) A surfacing film can be observed on the surface of the carbon fiber composite. Polarized light, 25× objective. (b) Same view but using epi-fluorescence, 390–440 nm...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the methods and equipment applicable to metallographic studies and discusses the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy. Five major operations for preparation of metallographic specimens are discussed: sectioning, mounting, grinding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Fig. 4.2 The first macrograph of the microstructure of steel, Sorby’s 1864 macrograph of blister steel. Etched in very dilute nitric acid. 9× In Sorby’s day, the examination of structure was limited by the fairly low magnification of the light (optical) microscope. (In this book, we prefer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... after microhardness testing and provides practices that contribute to the safe preparation of specimens. Examples of nitrided case microstructures, using optical light microscopy, are also presented. hardness testing microstructure nitrided case optical light microscopy sample preparation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... to 180°F for 15 to 45 min. Etching can be conducted on a saw-cut face, but better resolution is obtained with ground faces. Gill and Johnstin found that this etch was more selective in its attack than similar solutions involving nitric acid and water or sulfuric acid and water [ 3 ]. An important feature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... about twice as much binder. The lower-cobalt grade is used for lighter-duty cutting. The complex grade high in TiC is relatively low in transverse strength and high in resistance to abrasion and cratering. It is used extensively for high-speed, light-duty finishing. The complex grade highest in cobalt...