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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...Abstract Abstract This appendix contains a list of Greek letters used in materials science and engineering and what they represent. Greek alphabet ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... entities. All military specifications begin with the uppercase letters MIL. The next part of the designation is an uppercase letter representing the first letter of the title for the item specified. (Thus, T is used for titanium and F for forgings.) A serial number follows. Military standards also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
..., axis of forging); T, width, long-transverse grain direction; S, thickness, short-transverse grain direction. First letter: normal to the fracture plane (loading direction); second letter: direction of crack propagation in fracture plane Fig. A6.3 ASTM crack plane orientation identification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... to etching and its light weight, magnesium is also used in photoengraving. No international system for designating magnesium alloys exists, although there has been a trend toward adopting the naming method used by ASTM for magnesium alloys. This method is a three-part letter-number-letter system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... societies and U.S. governmental agencies devised what is known as the Unified Numbering System. There is a UNS designation for each steel composition, and it consists of a letter followed by five digits. The system fully incorporates the AISI/SAE system. For example, the UNS designation for AISI/SAE 1040...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Institute) for cast alloys that is significant; these designations are currently assigned by ASTM as grades and are added to ASTM specifications. The first letter, “C” or “H,” indicates corrosion resisting. The second letter indicates the relative amount of nickel, from a minimum of 0 to 1% for “A” up to 30...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... A7.12 Fig. A7.12 Comparison of S-N curves for B201-T7 aluminum casting with HIP A201-T7 casting (dashed line, Northrop data: Ref A7.13 ), 7075-T73 wrought (Alcoa Green Letter GL-206, 1971), and 7475-T7651 wrought (Alcoa Green Letter GL-216, 1985). Source: Ref A7.12 Fig. A7.13...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... ferrite. Another name for ferrite is alpha iron, or α-iron, where α is the Greek symbol for the first letter in the Roman alphabet, “a.” Fig. 1.2 Crystal structure of the grains and the nature of the grain boundaries The nature of a grain boundary is illustrated at the bottom center of Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Corrosion Cracking in Large-Diameter Stainless Steel Recirculation System Piping at BWR Plants ,” NRC IE Bull. No. 83-02, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Inspection and Enforcement, March 4 , 1983 16.3 “ Inspection of BWR Stainless Steel Piping ,” NRC Generic Letter 84-11, U.S...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... (22 lbs). The major load, however, can be 60, 100, or 150 kg (130, 220, or 330 lbs). No Rockwell hardness value is expressed by a number alone. A letter has been assigned to each combination of load and indenter, as shown in Table 1 . Each number is suffixed by first the letter H (for hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... types, as illustrated in the left column of Table 14.1 . The various types are subdivided further according to a letter code followed by a number, as shown in the second column of this table. Chapter 6 of Ref 14.3 presents complete lists of all the tool steels along with an excellent discussion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... and is separated from it by a hyphen. Basic temper designations consist of individual capital letters. Major subdivisions of basic tempers, where required, are indicated by one or more digits following the letter. These digits designate specific sequences of treatments that produce specific combinations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... orientation scheme showing longitudinal, long transverse, and short transverse directionality. Six possible specimen designations are: L-S, L-T, S-L, S-T, T-L, and T-S. The first letter denotes the direction of the applied load; the second letter denotes the direction of crack growth. Fig. 5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... with the type letter code shown in Table A1 . For example, the Chromel-Alumel thermocouple is a type K thermocouple. One of the problems with using thermocouples in hot furnaces is that the metal thermocouple wires will oxidize. If the oxide films extend too far below the surface, the thermocouple...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... the temperatures of transformation considerably. To differentiate between the critical points on heating and cooling, the small letters “c” (for chauffage , from the French, meaning heating ) and “r” (for refroidissement , from the French, meaning cooling ) are added. The terminology of the critical points...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of texturing (e.g., titanium alloys). Fracture toughness is affected by both of these directional effects, and it is customary to report fracture toughness values in terms of the orientation relative to the principal direction of working. In the nomenclature shown in Fig. 13.21 , the first letter is the load...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... steels in the United States are identified by letters (A, D, H, O, P, L, etc.) that pertain to perceived use: H steels for hot work, M steels for cutting tools, and so forth. Tool steels are the most common steels used in applications in which tribological characteristics are a limiting factor. Alloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to magnesium metal and chlorine gas. Magnesium alloys are designated by a combination of letters and numbers, which was established by ASTM International. The system, shown in Table 27.1 , covers both the chemical compositions and the tempers. As an example, in the alloy EQ21A-T6, the first part...