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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... as viable replacements for 304. Stainless steel 2003 (UNS S32003) or an equivalent lean-duplex grade can replace 316 at a cost advantage during times of high alloy cost as have been experienced on occasion, such as during the period of 2004 to 2007. It should be noted that the leaner alloys suggested (439...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... a near-alpha alloy. The names superalpha and lean-beta alpha are also used for this type of alpha-beta alloy. While these classifications are useful, many of them are actually very close to each other in the total amount of beta stabilizer present, as illustrated in the Fig. 28.4 phase diagram...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the compositions, mechanical properties, phase structure, stabilization, corrosion resistance, and advantages of austenitic stainless steels. Austenitic alloys are classified and reviewed in three groups: (1) lean alloys, such as 201 and 301, which are generally...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... carbon steels. This higher strength requires greater sophistication in tooling and lubricants, and it requires more powerful forming equipment. The higher initial strength is also accompanied by a higher work hardening rate in austenitic stainless steels, which further distinguishes them from carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... temperature has slightly exceeded the δ solvus temperature in a niobium-lean region of the billet. (See Fig. 4.26 under the section “Homogenization of Solute Distribution in Ingots” in Chapter 4 .) Without sufficient δ phase present, the grain size has grown in the niobium-lean region. The alternating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... of a coarse-grained structure (although no data are available to show this). Effect on properties: A fine grain size can occasionally have an adverse influence on the case and the core hardenability of lean-alloy carburizing steels. However, in general, a fine grain size is preferred. Coarse-grained...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
..., mechanical properties, tooling cost per piece, and overall cost factors. The chapter contains tables listing several markets, products, popular processes, and common alloys and the common processes used for a variety of markets and products. casting process selection engineering design aluminum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... The solidification of superalloys is governed, as is the solidification of all metals, by the laws of the phase diagram. However, the kinetics of the solidification process determine the microstructure that actually is formed. When solidification occurs, solvent-lean alloy forms first and then grows, usually...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... an especially valuable tool in helping us understand and design better duplex stainless steels. Without being able to computer model the thermodynamics of the system, it would be impossible to project the partitioning of the various potential alloying elements. Figure 3 shows isopleth diagrams for a basic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Sept 2001 10.4271/2001-01-2608 • McGahey J.D. , Schaut A.J. , Chalupa E. , Thompson P. , and Williams G. , “ An Investigation into the Use of Small, Flexible, Machine Tools to Support the Lean Manufacturing Environment ,” 2001 Aerospace Congress, SAE Aerospace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... quenching from the carburizing temperature or single quenching from approximately the Ac cm temperature are common. These methods are suitable for those small, lean alloy steel items that are not required to be die or plug quenched. With high production runs, the chosen steels have just enough...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... of sophisticated tools aid metallurgists in the study of metal structures. These include the electron microscope, electron and x-ray diffraction, and the electron-probe micro-analyzer. However, the instruments still most widely used to study metal structures are the light microscope and, to a lesser degree...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... tools, and machinery such as larger drill presses and lathes. The higher aluminum content alloys (the ZA alloys described) are increasingly being specified for bearings and bushings in low-speed, high-load applications. In addition to the use of wrought zinc in roofing and flashing, rolled zinc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... that contains much more alpha than beta is often called a near-alpha alloy. The names superalpha and lean-beta alpha are also used for this type of alpha-beta alloy. While these classifications are useful, many of them are actually very close to each other in the total amount of beta stabilizer present...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
.... and Cooksey R.J. , “Surface Treatment of Engineering Components,” Special Report 95: Heat Treatment of Metals , Iron and Steel Institute , London , 1966 , p 77 – 92 11. Mitchell E. , Cooksey R.J. , and Dawes C. , “Lean-Alloy Carburising Steels,” Publication 114: Low-Alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... flanging incremental forming stretch forming IN SHEET METAL forming, an initially simple part—a sheet blank, for example—is plastically deformed between tools (or dies) to obtain the desired final configuration. Thus, a simple part geometry is transformed into a complex one, whereby the tools “store...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... at relatively high temperatures. For example, for low-carbon steels, these transformations take place at temperatures between the Ac 3 and about 400 °C. Martensite, on the other hand, is a low-temperature transformation product. For a typical low-carbon lean-alloy steel, the martensite transformation range...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... upon weld cooling. Steels of this type are used for springs, cutting tools, and abrasion-resistant applications. Low-hydrogen consumables and procedures, preheating, interpass control, and stress relieving are essential if cracking is to be avoided. Austenitic stainless steel electrodes are sometimes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... is superplastically formed into components such as aerospace parts, golf club heads, metal ballons, working tools, wristwatch casings, automotive parts, and mountain-climbing equipment. Ti-6Al-1.7Fe-0.1Si, UNS: none, TiMetal 62S and 62S With iron as a beta stabilizer, alloy 62S has lower formulation costs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the types of failures that can occur in sheet metal forming tools and explains how to mitigate their effects. It describes the factors that influence galling and wear and the benefits of special treatments and coatings. It provides information on through...