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lead-tin eutectic system

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter begins by presenting a generic eutectic phase diagram and identifying critical points, lines, and features. It then describes the composition and properties of aluminum-silicon and lead-tin eutectic systems, the characteristics of eutectic morphologies, the solidification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... in the tin-lead system are the most widely used of all joining materials. Lead and tin are also important alloy constituents in a number of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. Because lead is soft and ductile, it is normally used commercially as lead alloys. Antimony, tin, arsenic, and calcium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... The major eutectic systems include the aluminum-silicon eutectic system and the lead-tin eutectic system. The chapter discusses the construction of eutectic phase diagrams from free energy curves. It also provides information on peritectic, monotectic, and solid-state reactions in alloy systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... °C (1400 °F) and held 10 min, then cooled to 670 °C (1240 °F) and held 15 min (peritectic temperature: 732 °C, or 1350 °F). The matrix is aluminum (white) with UAl 4 (dark) eutectic. This UAl 3 + Al → UAl 4 reaction leads to unfavorable rolling behavior. Original magnification: 700×. Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... behavior of alloys in molten aluminum, zinc, lead, lithium, sodium, magnesium, mercury, cadmium, tin, antimony, and bismuth. It also discusses the problem of liquid metal embrittlement, explaining how it is caused by low-melting-point metals during brazing, welding, and heat treating operations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... precious metals that, in addition to being measures of wealth, have important industrial applications. Finally, the fusible alloys are a group of over 100 alloys that have melting points lower than that of lead-tin eutectic solder. References 1. Fusible Alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... at high extrusion speeds in the deformation zone of the extrusion tooling. The solidus of the lead-tin eutectic at 183 °C has to be taken into account in the tin alloys containing lead. If melting occurs in the solid tin matrix, transverse cracks will definitely be produced in the extruded products...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... foundry practices are required to minimize hot tearing and shrinkage defects. Tin is the major alloying element in compositions developed for bearing applications. It has also been employed with bismuth, lead, and cadmium at lower concentrations to provide free-machining properties. The 850-series...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... a eutectic structure of alternating platelets as sketched schematically in Fig. 2.5 . Fig. 2.5 The eutectic structure of a lead-tin alloy consisting of alternating platelets of lead-rich and tin-rich phases. Source: Ref 2.1 In another system, copper and nickel are completely soluble in each...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... are efficiently reflected, while anodized and dark anodized surfaces can be reflective or absorbent. The reflectance of polished aluminum, over a broad range of wave lengths, leads to its selection for a variety of decorative and functional uses. Aluminum typically displays excellent electrical and thermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
.... , Suh J.O. , and Wu A.T. , Tin Whisker Growth on Lead-Free Solder Finishes , Lead-Free Solder Interconnect Reliability , ASM International , 2005 7.12 Vianco P.T. , Wave Soldering , Welding, Brazing, and Soldering , Vol 6 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1993 10.31399...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... are based on compositions around the iron-carbon eutectic composition of iron with 4.30 wt% C. Another industrially significant eutectic is in the lead-tin system for solders. This system ( Fig. 2.38 ) has a eutectic melting point of 183 °C at a composition of 61.9 wt% Sn and 38.1 wt% Pb (or 73.9% tin atoms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... are: Lower coefficient of thermal expansion Higher thermal conductivity Better resistance to thermal shock Higher damping capacity Better castability, leading to higher casting yield and the capability for pouring more intricate castings Improved machinability Compacted graphite iron can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., and the required quantities to be produced. Furnaces vary in size with outputs ranging from a few pounds to several hundred tons. For low-temperature melting point alloys, such as zinc or lead for example, temperatures may only need to reach as high as 400 °C. Fuel sources such as propane or natural gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... heat treatment leads graphite formation in a reasonably tough microstructure. The cost of the process, however, creates a significant limitation. The development of nodular cast iron (see the section “ 17.5 Nodular Cast Iron or Ductile Cast Iron ” in this chapter), either in 1940 per Ref 1 or 1948...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... in the matrix. Because they increase the ferrite/pearlite ratio, they decrease strength and hardness. Nickel, copper, and tin increase the graphitization potential during the eutectic transformation but decrease it during the eutectoid transformation thus increasing the pearlite/ferrite ratio. This second...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... THE SCOPE OF NONFERROUS METALS and metal alloy systems that are routinely heat treated is quite broad and would include aluminum alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel and nickel alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, tin-rich alloys, lead and lead alloys, uranium and uranium alloys, and precious...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... It explains how steel shrinks as it solidifies, causing issues such as pipe and voids, and how differences in the solubility of solid and liquid steel lead to compositional heterogeneities or segregation. It describes the dendritic nature of solidification, peritectic and eutectic reactions, microporosity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...: gold, silver, copper, tin, lead, and iron. Gold and silver were too soft to be useful for much except decoration. Copper could be hardened by hammering or forging and was therefore useful as a tool but had little value as a weapon. Bronze, developed by alloying copper with tin, had useful strengths...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... 12 Generic classification of copper and copper alloys Generic name UNS No. Composition Wrought alloys Coppers (a) C10100–C15815 >99% Cu High-copper alloys (b) C16200–C19900 >96% Cu Brasses C20100–C28000 Cu-Zn Leaded brasses C31200–C38500 Cu-Zn-Pb Tin...