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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the compositions, properties, and applications of nonferrous metals, including zirconium, hafnium, beryllium, lead, tin, gold, silver, and platinum group metals. It also addresses fusible alloys and provides melting temperatures for several compositions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... material selection, and discuss, where appropriate, the characteristic forms of corrosion that attack specific materials. The materials addressed in this chapter include carbon steels, weathering steels, and alloy steels; nickel, copper, aluminum, titanium, lead, magnesium, tin, zirconium, tantalum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article examines the role of alloying in the production and use of lead and tin. It describes the various categories and grades of lead and lead-base alloys along with their nominal compositions and corresponding UNS numbers. It also discusses the composition and properties of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... CATEGORIZING DEFECTS leading to failure vary among failure analysis practitioners, quality engineers, other engineers, and managers, as well as legal and insurance professionals. Grouping failure causes into a few fundamental categories is advantageous and informative because it defines which aspect of a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... spectrum of materials to be extruded. This chapter focuses on the processes involved in the extrusion of semifinished products in various metals and their alloys, namely tin, lead, lead-base soft solders, tin-base soft solders, zinc, magnesium, aluminum, copper, titanium, zirconium, iron, nickel, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... functionality has to be maintained during the process. This leads to the requirement of adding additional techniques that help isolate and image defects that are buried deeply within the board structure. This article demonstrates an approach of advanced board level failure analysis by using several non...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... techniques for array failure analysis. The article then presents know-how-based analysis techniques of array failures by bitmap classification. The limits of bitmapping that lead to well-known localization techniques like thermally induced voltage alteration and optical beam induced resistance change are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... inspection followed by material evaluation and characterization. These processes are typically followed by evaluation of the packages to identify defects, degradations, and failure mechanisms that are caused by the processes (e.g., cleaning, solder dipping of leads, reballing) used in creating counterfeit...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the melting and conversion of superalloys and the solidification challenges they present. Superalloys have high solute content which can lead to untreatable defects if they solidify too slowly. These defects, called freckles, are highly detrimental to fatigue...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... subtle. This chapter summarizes a few commonly encountered contaminant sources to stimulate the reader's thinking about potential contaminant sources. A case study of titanium component washing at Litton Lasers is presented to illustrate how the presence of contaminants leads to a system failure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... Abstract Distortion failures are readily identified by the inherent change in size and/or shape. They are serious because they can lead to other types of failure or may even cause complete collapse of structures, such as bridges, ladders, beams, and columns. Distortion failures may be...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... generalized manner. The chapter provides a discussion on the constitution of commercially pure iron, subsequently leading to discussion on the iron-carbon alloy system. The chapter also describes the effect of carbon on the constitution of iron and of the solubility of carbon in iron. It provides information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the conditions and sequence of events that lead to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and the mechanisms by which it progresses. It explains that the stresses involved in SCC are relatively small and, in most cases, work in combination with the development of a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses two damage mechanisms in which stress plays a major role. In the one case, stress causes cracks in the oxide scale on metals, leading to preferential corrosion attack. An example from industry of this type of failure is the circumferential cracking that occurs on...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... behavior of alloys in molten aluminum, zinc, lead, lithium, sodium, magnesium, mercury, cadmium, tin, antimony, and bismuth. It also discusses the problem of liquid metal embrittlement, explaining how it is caused by low-melting-point metals during brazing, welding, and heat treating operations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... lead to galvanic corrosion, along with methods for predicting and controlling galvanic corrosion. galvanic corrosion corrosion control corrosion prediction polarization galvanic series GALVANIC CORROSION occurs when a metal or alloy is electrically coupled to another metal or conducting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This chapter provides a brief review of the scientific and technological developments leading to the widespread use of induction heat treating and its many applications in industry. induction heating THIS CHAPTER includes a brief history of metallurgy, followed by a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter begins by presenting a generic eutectic phase diagram and identifying critical points, lines, and features. It then describes the composition and properties of aluminum-silicon and lead-tin eutectic systems, the characteristics of eutectic morphologies, the solidification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter provides a brief overview of monotectic alloy systems and reactions. It begins by presenting a monotectic phase diagram and identifying important points, lines, and regions. It then describes the monotectic reactions that occur in copper-lead systems and the associated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter explains how the presence of intermediate phases affects the melting behavior of binary alloys and the transformations that occur under different rates of cooling. It begins by examining the phase diagrams of magnesium-lead and copper-zinc, noting some of the complexities...