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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... that is not aligned parallel or perpendicular to the direction of applied stress is called a general orthotropic lamina (θ ≠ 0° or 90°). 1.2 Laminates When there is a single ply or a lay-up in which all of the layers or plies are stacked in the same orientation, the lay-up is called a lamina . When...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... if the lay-up includes a design where the plies are alternately oriented in the warp and fill directions. Figure 7.12 shows a montage of a chamfer area of a honeycomb composite structure. In this figure, the 3k-70 plain weave carbon fabric plies are easily observed, as are voids in the structure. Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... carbon fiber composite part. (a) Sectioned and polished perpendicular to the fiber direction. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective. (b) Sectioned and polished parallel to the fiber direction. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective Voids in Honeycomb Core Composites The lay-up of honeycomb...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... and overlaps are typically controlled to 0.030 in. (0.8 mm) or less. One difference between fiber-placed and hand layed-up plies is the stair-step ply terminations obtained with fiber placement, since each tow is cut perpendicular to the fiber direction. Again, this stair-step ply termination has been shown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... in which individual layers of prepreg are laid up on a tool, in the required directions and to the correct thickness. A vacuum bag is then placed over the lay-up, and the air is evacuated to draw out air between the plies. The bagged part is placed in an oven or an autoclave and cured under specified time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
..., including lighter weight, the ability to tailor lay-ups for optimum strength and stiffness, improved fatigue strength, corrosion resistance, and, with good design practice, reduced assembly costs due to fewer detail parts and fasteners. The specific strength (strength/density) and specific modulus (modulus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... and laminate lay-ups. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 4 Tensile properties of fiber, matrix, and composite. Source: Ref 1 Because the fiber orientation directly impacts the mechanical properties, it would seem logical to orient as many of the layers as possible in the main load-carrying direction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... and pinning in the transverse “Z” direction. However, stitching of pregreg lay-ups is expensive and can damage the fibers. Z-pinning, shown in Fig. 9.33 , is a technology in which small-diameter precured carbon pins are driven through the prepreg lay-up before cure with an ultrasonic gun. Fig. 9.33...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... pilot holes are predrilled in the patch. To locate the patch, the skin is marked with intersecting lines establishing the 0° and 90° directions. The patch is then placed on the skin, and two opposing end hole locations are marked. The patch is removed, and two pilot holes are drilled in the skin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... film stacking is used, in which alternating layers of thermoplastic film and dry woven cloth are layed up and consolidated. The time for successful consolidation for film stacked lay-ups becomes even longer, since the high-viscosity resin has even longer distances to flow. A typical processing cycle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... during cure. The output of the heat transfer submodel drives both the kinetic and viscosity models. The most complicated submodel is the flow submodel, which predicts the resin flow through the fiber bed in both the horizontal and vertical directions during cure. The void submodel predicts how processing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... (measured in a G radial direction from the mandrel axis). G1c, G2c. See fracture toughness. gap (filament winding). The space between suc- F fatigue. The failure or decay of mechani- cessive windings, which are usually intended to lay next to each other. cal properties after repeated applications 154...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... molding provides two finished surfaces and controlled thickness, and it requires no auxiliary vacuum or autoclave equipment. Other processes used for prototyping such as hand lay-up and wet molding give only a single finished surface, and dimensions in the thickness direction are controlled. Matched...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... in the matrix. They are small in both length and diameter compared to fibers. Fibers have a very long axis compared to particles and whiskers. They are usually circular or nearly circular and are significantly stronger in the long direction because they are normally made by either drawing or pulling during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... be analyzed based on energy dissipation. It describes the stick-slip behavior observed in wiper blades, the concept of asperities, and the significance of the shape, lay, roughness, and waviness of surfaces in sliding contact. It explains how friction forces are measured and how they are influenced by speed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... but differing in fiber shape. (a) Cylindrical carbon fiber shape. Bright-field illumination, 50× objective. (b) Irregular bean-shaped fibers. Bright-field illumination, 25× objective Many methods are used to manufacture fiber-reinforced composites, including hand lay-up of prepreg materials, automated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., molten smelt may come within close proximity to, and possibly in direct contact with, the floor tubes, prompting severe tube overheating and thus premature tube failures ( Ref 11 ). Hogan ( Ref 11 ) reported several floor tube overheating incidents; in one case the tubes were overheated in excess of 675...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the rolling and finishing processes required to create a sheet, plate, or foil product from a direct chill (DC) cast ingot. The flow paths, equipment, and operations are described with a view to the basic evolution of the microstructure, surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.9781627083492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... will lay on these surfaces. It is then simply a case of following the tangential direction from the mandrel contact point until the first interaction with the enveloping surface. As long as the clearance surfaces are suitably defined, clash-free winding is guaranteed, as well as efficient use...