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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... as a specially orthotropic lamina (θ = 0° or 90°). A lamina that is not aligned parallel or perpendicular to the direction of applied stress is called a general orthotropic lamina (θ ≠ 0° or 90°). When there is a single ply or a lay-up in which all of the layers or plies are stacked in the same...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... process Lower labor intensity and skill levels Considerable design flexibility: reinforcements, lay-up sequence, core materials, and mixed materials Mechanical properties comparable to autoclave part (void content <1%) Part size range and complexity make RTM appealling Smooth finish...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... if the orientation for the lay-up is known ( Fig. 7.7 ). However, if the composite is cross sectioned in only one direction, it may be difficult to accurately determine the fiber orientation of the other plies if they are unknown. In this instance, the composite can be cross sectioned perpendicular to each assumed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
...× objective. (b) Sectioned and polished parallel to the fiber direction. Bright-field illumination, 10× objective The lay-up of honeycomb parts often results in voided areas in the composite structure as a result of low pressure in the facesheets and vacuum in the core during manufacturing. Voids...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... and autoclave processing, the manufacturing costs are relatively high. Prepreg lay-up is a process in which individual layers of prepreg are laid up on a tool, in the required directions and to the correct thickness. A vacuum bag is then placed over the lay-up, and the air is evacuated to draw out air between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
..., including lighter weight, the ability to tailor lay-ups for optimum strength and stiffness, improved fatigue strength, corrosion resistance, and, with good design practice, reduced assembly costs due to fewer detail parts and fasteners. The specific strength (strength/density) and specific modulus (modulus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... lay-ups. Susceptible to attack by solvents. Polyurethane foam 3–29 250–350 Low- to high-density closed cell foam capable of thermoforming at 425–450 °F. Both thermoplastic and thermoset foams are available. Used for cocured and secondarily bonded sandwich panels with both flat and complex curved...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., the lay-up is defined as a lamina, while when the plies are stacked at various angles, the lay-up is called a laminate. Continuous-fiber composites are normally laminated materials ( Fig. 3 ) in which the individual layers, plies, or laminae are oriented in directions that will enhance the strength...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... repair joints Fig. 19.13 Typical bagging sequence for field repair Fig. 19.15 Double-bag method for debulking prepreg and wet lay-up patches Fig. 19.16 Double-bag staging cycle Fig. 19.18 Composite honeycomb minor repair. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 19.19...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... , 46th International SAMPE Symposium , May 2001 , p 2264 – 2277 • Dharia A.K. , Hays B.S. , and Seferis J.C. , Evaluation of Microcracking in Aerospace Composites Exposed to Thermal Cycling: Effect of Composite Lay-up, Laminate Thickness and Thermal Ramp Rate , 33rd...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... full consolidation. Previous studies have shown that the interlaminar shear strength of a composite is reduced about seven percent for each one percent of voids up to a maximum of four percent. A reasonable goal is 0.5 percent or less porosity. It has been reported that hot tape laying operations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... molding provides two finished surfaces and controlled thickness, and it requires no auxiliary vacuum or autoclave equipment. Other processes used for prototyping such as hand lay-up and wet molding give only a single finished surface, and dimensions in the thickness direction are controlled. Matched...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... the warp direction to help fabricators identify warp and fill direction during composite part lay-up. The selection of a weave involves manufacturing considerations as well as final mechanical properties. The weave type affects dimensional stability and the conformability (or drape) of the fabric over...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.9781627083492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Scanning electron micrographs (backscattered electron image) showing a crack penetrated through the 625 cladding (of a coextruded tube) and then terminated at the cladding/steel interface at low magnification (original micrograph 35×) (a), and at high magnification showing the crack changed direction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... be determined using ASTM D 7137. The specimen ( Fig. 13.15 ) is 6 in. (15 cm) long by 4 in. (10 cm) wide, with a quasi-isotropic or lay-up representative of the actual structure. A “picture frame” impact test fixture is used for the impact, and then the specimen is loaded to failure in compression. Ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... that can be analyzed based on energy dissipation. It describes the stick-slip behavior observed in wiper blades, the concept of asperities, and the significance of the shape, lay, roughness, and waviness of surfaces in sliding contact. It explains how friction forces are measured and how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... illumination, 50× objective. (b) Irregular bean-shaped fibers. Bright-field illumination, 25× objective Many methods are used to manufacture fiber-reinforced composites, including hand lay-up of prepreg materials, automated tape lay-up of prepreg materials, resin transfer molding, vacuum-assisted resin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... as to more mundane uses that benefit from light weight (low-density), exceptional uncoated corrosion resistance, and good strength. The golf club and the high-speed racing bicycle are examples of uses benefiting from good strength. The record of accomplishment has been remarkable. The future directions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
..., weave and stitching, matrix properties and toughness, location and size of the toughening materials, interlayer thickness and properties, and the fiber-matrix interfacial properties. The design of the composite part, including the geometry, thickness, number of interfaces, and lay-up, affects...