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laminate thickness

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... 0.0125 36 13 5 2404 –0.029641 1 0.485 0.0175 36 3 4 443 –0.0112274 1 0.68 0.015 36 2 5 369 –0.00670048 1 0.68 0.025 36 2 3 221 +0.0114481 1 0.815 0.0125 36 2 5 369 –0.00670048 1 Fig. 3.8 Comparison of various methods for the laminate thickness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... 7.36 Low- and high-pressure areas during cure Fig. 7.37 Mold stretching during cure. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 7.38 Effects of tool material, orientation, and thickness on laminate distortion. Source: Ref 8 Fig. 7.16 Hydrostatic resin pressure setup. Source: Ref 4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... to permit maximizing the strength of the laminate. Use d/t ~ 1 d = bolt diameter t = laminate thickness 9. Rated shear strength of selected fastener should be conservative. Allows redistribution of loading without concern that fastener will fall in shear. 10. Peak hoop tension stress around...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... objects, but it cannot determine porosity levels as thoroughly as through transmission. If appropriate reference standards are available, pulse echo can be used to measure laminate thickness and the depth of defects. Pulse echo is more sensitive to transducer alignment than through transmission. For pulse...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... 16.13 Interlaminar shear and peel stresses in a 0°, 90° laminate. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 16.10 Example 16-3a ply diagram Fig. 16.12 Variation of ply stresses and strains through the laminate thickness Fig. 16.14 Failure envelope for the Azai-Tasi-Hill failure criterion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... instability in thick laminates. Significant weight savings are possible with postbuckled design. 14. Locating 90° and ±45° plies toward the exterior surfaces improves the buckling allowables in many cases. Locate 45° plies toward the exterior surface of the laminate where local buckling is critical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.9781627083386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... in strength and stiffness. An example of these is the through-the-thickness tensile strength, where the relatively weak matrix is loaded rather than the high-strength fibers. The low through-the-thickness strength of a typical composite laminate compared to aluminum is shown in Fig. 6 . Composites vs...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... of the laminations. The lamination thickness used for induction coils ranges from 0.1 to 1.0 mm (0.004 to 0.040 in.), with the thin laminates being used for the highest frequencies. The main frequency use of laminations application is below 10 kHz, although at times they are used at frequencies up to 30 kHz...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240607
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to produce the required final laminate thickness, which is autoclave cured. Fig. 33.17 Typical glass laminate aluminum-reniforced ply construction The primary advantages of GLARE are better fatigue crack propagation resistance than aluminum, superior damage tolerance compared to aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... and Delamination on Ply Thickness in Graphite/Epoxy Laminates , Damage in Composite Materials , STP 775, ASTM , 1982 , p 118 – 139 10.1520/STP34324S 8.35. Wu E.M. , Application of Fracture Mechanics to Anisotropic Plates , J. Appl. Mech. (Trans. ASME), Ser. E , Vol 34 , 1967 10.1115/1.3607864...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... small for laminate thickness, unshimmed gaps or excessive shimmed gaps in joint, or insufficient fastener clamp-up. Fig. 10.7 Composite mechanically fastened joint failure modes. Source: Ref 10.3 Like hole drilling, fastener installation in composites is more difficult and damage prone...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... on the laminate thickness and the desired amount of resin to be removed. For the newer net resin content prepregs, bleeder cloth is not required since it is not necessary to remove any excess resin. After the bleeder is placed on the lay-up, an inner bag made of boPET (polyester, e.g., Mylar), polyvinyl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
..., filament-wound parts usually have higher void content and lower through-the-thickness properties than autoclaved parts. Laminate void and fiber content have important effects on properties that are significantly influenced by the resin system, such as transverse shear strength, in-plane compressive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., end tabs are not strictly required. However, end tabs are usually used for two reasons: (1) the grips are knurled and tend to bite into the specimen surface; and (2) since the test is sensitive to thickness variations, end tabs are ground flat and parallel across the thickness. If a thin laminate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... saturation will not have occurred after two years of exposure, and for thicker laminates at 0.24 in. (6.1 mm), even after 50 years the specimen will not have reached equilibrium. Therefore, most thick structures will contain moisture gradients through their thickness. The effects of absorbed moisture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
.... By this means, the eddy-current paths are minimized to keep losses low. The thickness of the individual laminations should be held to a minimum. Generally, below 3 kHz, the laminations should be on the order of 0.38 mm (0.015 in.) each. At 10 kHz, a thickness of 0.20 mm (0.008 in.) is used. The laminations have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... mechanism In-plane delamination instead of through thickness cracks Source: Ref 2 Fig. 1.14 Comparison of through-the-thickness tensile strength of a composite laminate with aluminum alloy sheet. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 1.15 Comparison of typical stress-strain curves for a composite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... due to fastener hole defects   RTD Tension Compression RT (a) 250° F (a) Out-of-round holes 50/40/10 laminate (b) … … 30/60/10 laminate –4.8 … … Broken fibers exit side of hole Severe –7.3 –8.4 –9.2 Moderate –1.4 –3.2 –4.2 Porosity around hole...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... to spring in, or close up, during the cure process. Therefore, it is necessary to compensate for angled parts, as shown in Fig. 4.5 . The degree of compensation required is somewhat dependent on the actual lay-up orientation and thickness of the laminate. A great deal of progress has been made...