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isothermal phase transformations

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the isothermal phase transformations of the iron-carbide system. The discussion includes the formation of ferritic, eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, hypereutectoid, bainitic, and martensitic microstructures as well as their properties, composition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... the development of the iron-carbon phase diagram, coupled with the understanding of the kinetics of phase transformations through the use of isothermal transformation diagram, were breakthroughs in the advancement of ferrous physical metallurgy. Several examples of the morphological features of microstructural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Isothermal and continuous cooling transformation (CT) diagrams help users map out diffusion-controlled phase transformations of austenite to various mixtures of ferrite and cementite. This chapter discusses the application as well as limitations of these engineering tools in the context of heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... for constructing isothermal and vertical sections as well as liquid projections. It also explains how diffusion couples provide a window into local equilibria and identifies typical phase diagram construction errors along with problems stemming from phase-boundary curvatures and congruent transformations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... phase austenite-iron carbide region, and thus the structure upon beginning transformation was austenite and iron carbide. Upon cooling, no significant amount of additional iron carbide formed. The curvature of the isothermal TTT diagrams for low alloy steels displays a “C” shape. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... to read isothermal transformation and continuous-cooling diagrams and how to recognize the effect of various alloying elements. alloying elements constitutional diagram continuous-cooling diagram isothermal transformation diagram phase transformations It has been established...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...) conditions. Unlike isothermal decomposition of phase constituents that approach equilibrium conditions by diffusion-controlled mechanisms, martensite does not appear on equilibrium phase diagrams. The mechanism of martensitic transformation is a diffusionless process, where rapid changes in temperature cause...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
....” The proeutectoid phases grow by a ledge mechanism that operates by atom transfer across steps or ledges in the interface between the parent austenite and a growing proeutectoid crystal ( Ref 4.20 , 4.21 ). Figure 4.18 shows steps at interfaces of cementite allotriomorphs formed by isothermal transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... defines the final microstructure, and how the associated phase transformations are driven by nucleation and growth processes. It describes diffusionless and diffusive growth mechanisms and provides detailed information on the properties, structure, and behaviors of the transformation products produced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of steels (as a more quantitative indicator of phase transformations). Nonetheless, traditional isothermal cooling diagrams provide important understanding and assessment of transformation behavior. Several factors are involved in the mechanism of quenching: Of the various steel heat treating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... conventional lower bainite forms, 200 to 350 °C (390 to 660 °F). Figure 6.12 shows light and TEM micrographs of lower bainite with midrib in a 1.10% carbon steel transformed at 190 °C (370 °F). The midrib is an isothermally formed thin plate of martensite which provides the interface at which the two-phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... and Krauss G. , Copper Precipitation during Continuous Cooling and Isothermal Aging of A710-Type Steels , Metall. Mater. Trans. A , Vol 27 , 1996 , p 1573 – 1588 10.1007/BF02649816 7.19 Massalski T.B. , Massive Transformations , Phase Transformations , American Society for Metals...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... (DP) steels, transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels, and martensitic low-carbon steels. It also discusses twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels along with quenched and partitioned (Q&P) steels. dual-phase steel low-carbon steel microstructure quenched and partitioned steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Fig. 9.1 (Part 1) Pearlite formation (at 705 and 650 °C) in isothermal transformation of 0.8% C eutectoid steels. 0.81C-0.07Si-0.65Mn (wt%). Figure 9.2 completes this series. (a) Austenitized at 860 °C, transformed at 705 °C for 150 s. Picral. 250×. (b) Austenitized at 860 °C...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
...-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) Ferrite + pearlite + alloy precipitates 300–800 (44–116) 10–25 Dual-phase (DP) Ferrite + martensite 450–1000 (65–145) 6–30 Complex-phase (CP) Fine ferrite + higher fraction of martensite and pearlite 450–1200 (65–174) 6–30 Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... to the Crystallography of Martensite Transformations , Macmillan , New York , 1964 5.3 Kingery W.D. , Introduction to Ceramics , John Wiley & Sons , New York , 1960 5.4 Bansal G.K. and Heuer A.H. , On a Martensitic Phase Transformation in Zirconia (ZrO 2 )—I. Metallographic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.9781627082655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the metallurgy, composition, and properties of steels and other alloys. It provides information on the atomic structure of metals, the nature of alloy phases, and the mechanisms involved in phase transformations, including time-temperature effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the phase transformations of peritectic alloy systems. It describes the processes involved with equilibrium and nonequilibrium freezing, the mechanisms of peritectic formation, and the resulting microstructures. It also discusses the formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... a steel from 25°C to the spheroidizing temperature, which is below the austenite region. However, a spheroidized structure can be formed from austenite if the steel is cooled sufficiently slowly or if it is isothermally transformed and held sufficiently long. The latter is called isothermal annealing...