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iron-water system

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Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 2.11 Simplified Pourbaix diagram for the iron/water system (iron/iron-oxides). Source: Ref 9 More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 2.13 Pourbaix diagram for the iron/water system (iron/iron-oxides). Source: Ref 9 More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 2.14 Pourbaix diagram for the iron/water system (iron/iron-hydroxides). Source: Ref 9 More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 2.16 Pourbaix diagrams for the iron/water system. (a) Reproduction of Fig. 2.11 showing regions of corrosion, immunity, and possible passivation. (b) Form of the diagram frequently employed. Source: Ref 9 , 10 More
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 5.2 Pourbaix diagram for the system iron-water. Encircled numbers identify phase boundaries as identified by Pourbaix. Numbers, 0 to –6, refer to the activities, 10 0 to 10 –6 , of the aqueous ions. Based on Ref 2 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... at each electrode, accounting for different variables, mechanisms, and electrochemical effects. The chapter concludes with an in-depth review of Pourbaix diagrams, explaining what they reveal about the stability of metal-water systems and the formation of corrosion products. electrochemical cell...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... with the iron-water Pourbaix diagram. It then explains how anodic polarization is extremely sensitive to the environment and, as a result, a reasonably complete curve for a given metal-environment system usually can only be inferred. It goes on to describe how such curves are constructed, demonstrating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Hydrogen attack occurs more often in subcritical drum boilers that use a recirculating steam-generating system. Adequate control of water chemistry is critical to avoid internal deposition and corrosion of boiler tubes. The water chemistry is typically controlled by (a) water purification to remove...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ferric hydroxide (Fe(OH) 3 ), which contributes to the rapid growth of the tubercule. This process has been responsible for corrosion and plugging of iron water pipes. If chlorides are present in the system, the pH of the electrolyte trapped inside the tubercule may become very acid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... effect is corrosion as a result of removal of iron from the boiler tube surface, initially leading to thinning and finally failure due to rupture of the tube. 7.3.2.2 Oxygen Pitting Oxygen pitting damage occurs in the water supply system, preboiler systems, boilers, condensate return lines...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... iron (black iron) fittings have been used for potable water systems in the United States for probably one hundred years. Building codes no longer allow it for water because of corrosion concerns (the pipe ID corrodes) but cast iron fittings remain in U.S. building codes to carry natural gas. However...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., which can revert back to hydrated iron oxides (rust) in the presence of oxygen and water ( Fig. 15.1 ). In this example, the metal returns to its more chemically stable state from the reactions it has with the surrounding environment. Fig. 15.1 The corrosion cycle of steel Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... be demonstrated by considering the corrosion of iron in water. When iron is immersed in water, the corrosion reaction of interest is the reaction between iron atoms in the metal and the corrosion products of the iron that is, ferrous ions (Fe 2+ ) in solution. This reaction can be expressed as the following...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
..., and the effects of iron contamination on corrosion resistance. gas atomization powder characteristics stainless steel powder water atomization THE GOAL in stainless powder manufacture is to control fundamental powder properties, both chemical and physical, such as composition, particle size...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... A physical system may contain more than one phase. A glass of root beer with ice contains three phases: solid ice, a water-based solution, and bubbles of carbon dioxide. A material may contain more than one solid phase, each with a different crystal structure, or one or more mutually insoluble liquid phases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... pig molds of special cast iron grade mounted on an endless conveyor. A ladle pours metal from the blast furnace into the pig molds through a launder. The molds pass through a bank of water-cooling spray nozzles, solidifying the liquid metal. A vibrator at the end of the conveyor helps to loosen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... effects on corrosion rates, whereas four others (iron, nickel, copper, and cobalt) have extremely deleterious effects because of their low solid-solubility limits and their ability to serve as active cathodic sites for the reduction of water at the sacrifice of elemental magnesium. Although cobalt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., decreased CO 2 solubility, and accelerated precipitation kinetics) Increased pH above 4.0, as occurs in bicarbonate-containing waters (decreased solubility) or in conditions of iron supersaturation from buildup of iron corrosion products in the aqueous phase Lack of turbulence—low wall shear stress...
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 4 A 200 mm (8 in.) diameter gray iron pipe that failed because of graphitic corrosion. The pipe was part of a subterranean fire control system. The external surface of the pipe was covered with soil; the internal surface was covered with water. Severe graphitic corrosion occurred along More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
.... The molding sand is separated from the castings and reconditioned by adding a small amount of clay bond, water, and new sand (approximately 10%). Even the unburned bond and additives are separated by dust extraction systems for recycling. The ability to mechanize sand preparation and recycling with minimum...