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iron-carbon phase diagram

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Steel is made by adding carbon to iron, producing a solid solution defined by its crystalline structure. This chapter discusses the effect of carbon composition and temperature on the types of structures, or phases, that form. Using detailed phase diagrams, it explains how low-carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract This appendix includes two annotated iron-carbon (Fe-C) phase diagrams. One is a poster-size diagram showing iron-carbon phases up to 7 wt% C along with representative microstructures. The other diagram is close-up view showing the phases that occur from 0 to 1.2 wt% C. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Fig. A9.1 Iron-carbon equilibrium diagram from Metal Progress Materials and Process Engineering Databook , American Society for Metals, 1968, p39 Abstract This appendix presents an iron-carbon equilibrium diagram illustrating various phases a particular alloy of iron and carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... for Binary Alloys , 2nd ed. , Okamoto H. , Ed., ASM International , 2010 14.3 Okamoto H. , Phase Diagrams of Binary Iron Alloys , ASM International , 1992 14.4 Benz R. , Elliott J.F. , and Chipman J. , Metall. Trans. , Vol 4 , 1973 , p 1449 10.1007...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... The use of time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams in understanding the phase transformations and the changes in the isothermal transformation curves due to the addition of carbon and other alloying elements are also discussed. isothermal phase transformations iron-carbide system ferritic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes the iron-carbon phase diagram, its modification by alloying elements, and the effect of carbon on the chemistry and crystallography of austenite, ferrite, and cementite found in Fe-C alloys and steels. It also lays the groundwork for understanding important metallurgical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... (as in steels) and solidification (as in cast irons). The chapter describes how the development of the iron-carbon phase diagram, coupled with the understanding of the kinetics of phase transformations through the use of isothermal transformation diagram, were breakthroughs in the advancement of ferrous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract The commercial relevance of cast irons is best understood in the context of the iron-carbon phase diagram, where their composition places them near the eutectic point, which sheds light on why they melt at lower temperatures than steel and why they can be cast into more intricate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... in the solution, the freezing temperature suddenly begins to rise quite rapidly. This maximum composition is called the eutectic composition, which is discussed more in Chapter 3, “Steel and the Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram.” The curves show why it is preferable to use calcium chloride over sodium chloride...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... manganese is sometimes added to steel and how unintended consequences, such as the development of sulfide stringers, can offset the benefits. It also examines the effect of alloying elements on the iron-carbon phase diagram, particularly their effect on transformation temperatures. alloying elements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...) γ → α   +   F e 3 C Fig. 6.21 Iron-carbon phase diagram At a temperature of 1000 °C (1830 °F), a phase analysis of an alloy containing the eutectoid composition (0.8 wt% C) gives: Point: 0.8 wt% C alloy at 1000 °C (1830 °F) Phases: Austenite (γ) Compositions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... phases must be free of internal stresses. An exception to the rule that only true equilibrium states are recorded on phase diagrams is found in the representation of so-called metastable equilibria. In carbon steels, for example, there is a solid phase, a carbide of iron (Fe 3 C) called cementite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... phase on cooling, is called a peritectic reaction. Note that in the Cu-Sn diagram, there is another peritectic reaction: L + β → γ. Fig. 2.7 The copper-tin phase diagram. Source: Ref 2.3 Another important reaction occurs in the iron-carbon phase diagram ( Fig. 2.8 ). Above 727 °C (1340...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... cubic (bcc) chromium forms a continuous solid solution with bcc (δ) ferrite. At lower temperatures, the γ-iron phase appears on the iron side of the diagram and forms a “loop” extending to approximately 11.2% Cr. Alloys containing up to 11.2% Cr, and sufficient carbon, are hardenable by quenching from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... for a variety of titanium alloys and compared with experimental data. The effect of interstitial elements, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen, on the β transus temperatures is also discussed. In Example 4 , phase diagram calculation is used to predict dilation of iron alloys during phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... to facilitate study of the effects of conditions of state. Isolated means that there is no interchange of mass between the substance and its surroundings. The substances in alloy systems, for example, might be two metals, such as copper and zinc; a metal and a nonmetal, such as iron and carbon; a metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... diagrams are identical, Fig. 2.18 for the titanium-iron system is fairly representative of those having a eutectoid reaction and intermetallic phases ( Ref 2.4 ). The eutectoid temperature is the temperature at which the eutectoid reaction occurs. The eutectoid temperature in Fig. 2.18 is at 595 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...: Ref 16 . Table 3.2 Influence of silicon, manganese, and phosphorus on the iron-carbon constitutional diagram Element Effect of 0.01 wt% in solution in austenite on: A 1 A 3 %C in eutectoid Silicon Raised by ~0.3 °C Raised by ~0.5 °C Lowered by 0.0013% Manganese...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... composition ranges. Only the transition metals (e.g., iron, nickel, titanium, and zirconium) have appreciable solubilities for carbon, nitrogen, and boron. Very small atoms, such as carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen can fit in the spaces between the larger atoms. These sites are called interstitial sites and can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... temperature (quenched), the carbon atoms in the austenite do not have time to diffuse and form the iron carbide phase. Instead, on rapid cooling, the austenite is distorted into a body-centered tetragonal structure, which is similar to ferrite but distorted into a tetragonal structure by the trapped carbon...