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ionic concentration

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... energy and electrochemical potential, the effect of ionic concentration on electrode potential, and the corrosion behavior of a metal based on its potential-pH diagram. The corrosion (potential-pH) behavior of iron, gold, copper, zinc, aluminum, and titanium are described. Understanding the kinetics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... This x · i value can be used to determine the current density required to initiate or sustain pitting at a defect of a given size. As the pit current density increases, the ionic concentration in the pit solution increases, often reaching supersaturation conditions. A solid salt film may form...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...) may lead to harmful crevice effects over the life of the aircraft. Analyses of rehydrated corrosion products from lap joints have shown that more than 25 different ions can be present within these aircraft lap joints. These ions are present in low concentrations and have total ionic strength less...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... as a function of current density or charge transfer in a given area. The chapter explains how to measure and plot electrode potentials and currents and how to interpret the resulting polarization curves. It also discusses the effects of concentration gradients, explaining how they cause diffusion and, in some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... concentrations at flaw tips. As a result, even relatively small flaws (20 to 50 μm in radius) can cause glasses and ceramics to fail. This chapter examines the propensity of flaws to grow in glass and ceramic materials exposed to different environments, especially water, at stresses well below those that would...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... between Ionizing Potential and Ionic Potentials , J. Am. Ceram. Soc. , Vol 52 , p 3076 – 3083 10.1021/ja01371a006 Delimarski Y.K. , et al. , 1955 . Zh. Fiz. Khim. , Vol 29 , p 1489 Delimarski Y.K. , et al. , 1957 . Zh. Fiz. Khim. , Vol 31 , p 2589 Derham L.J...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... In solids, there are in principle two general classes of atomic bonds: Primary bonds Secondary bonds Primary bonds are stronger than secondary bonds, and examples include ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds. Secondary bonds are relatively weak in comparison to primary bonds and are only...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., as the concentration of dissolved species in the solution increases, the conductivity increases, and, in general, as the conductivity of the solution increases, the corrosion of metals in that solution increases. Recall that one of the requirements for a corrosion cell is an ionic conducting path between the anode...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... the procedures for a wide range of alloys and environments. The examples also show how factors such as alloy concentration, crystal lattice orientation, temperature, and dissolved oxygen affect corrosion behavior. active-passive metals alloy systems anodic polarization cathodic polarization corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Ductility is vital for easy formability and for fracture toughness, two properties that give metals a great advantage over ceramic materials for many engineering uses. Bonding in solids may be classified as either primary or secondary bonding. Mechanisms of primary bonding include the metallic, ionic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... solid solutions will form during solidification. However, when the metals have widely divergent electrochemical properties, they are more likely to form a chemical compound, often with some degree of covalent or ionic bonding present. For example, strongly electropositive magnesium will combine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...+ ; in the presence of strongly alkaline solutions, it dissolves once again, with the evolution of hydrogen, and gives rise to diberyllate ions Be 2 O 3 2– and beryllate ions BeO 2 2– . Figure 25.1 shows stability lines (9′, 6, and 10′) plotted for ionic concentrations of 1 (10 0 ), 10 –2 , 10 –4 , and 10 –6 g...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of the group of elements whose stabilities of their halide complexes lie in the order F > Cl > Br > I. The bonding in the halide complexes of these elements is essentially electrostatic. The strongest bonds are formed by ligands combining a small ionic radius with a low polarizability, parameters...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... from Δ G react o ( T ) by correcting the latter for the differences in concentrations of reactants and products from those of the standard state to those of the state corresponding to the actual conditions of reaction. Then, if ΔG react (T) < 0, the reaction will occur...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... thickens as a result of reaction at the scale/gas or metal/scale interface due to cation or anion transport through the scale, which behaves as a solid electrolyte. For continuous, nonporous scales, ionic transport through the scale is the rate-controlling process. The thermodynamic stability, the ionic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
..., molecular, or ionic transport process that takes place at the interface of a material. These processes usually involve more than one definable step, and the major interest is directed toward the slowest step that essentially controls the rate of the overall reaction. In corrosion, of course, this rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... lower the conductivity of metals, they have the opposite effect in insulators and semiconductors. In ionic solids, current is carried by the movement of ions under the influence of an electric field, just as it can be in liquid solutions. The difference is that the rate of movement of ions in solids...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... and Murphy S.M. , Modelling the Major Element Radiation-Induced Segregation in Concentrated Fe-Cr-Ni Alloys , Proc. Materials for Nuclear Reactor Core Applications , Vol 1 , British Nuclear Engineering Society , 1987 , p 165 6.51 Dumbill S. and Williams T.M. , Irradiation-Induced...