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invariant transformation structure

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... hypoeutectoid structures invariant transformation peritectoid transformation EUTECTOID AND PERITECTOID transformation are classified as solid-state invariant transformations. Invariant transformations are isothermal reversible reactions that occur at an invariant point on the phase diagram of an alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of peritectic structures in iron-base alloys and multicomponent systems. microstructure peritectic systems peritectic transformation SIMILAR TO THE EUTECTIC group of invariant transformations is a group of peritectic reactions, in which a liquid and solid phase decomposes into a new solid phase...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... content, or mixtures of lattice-invariant deformations such as combinations of twinning and dislocations in a given alloy ( Ref 5.42 ). Fig. 5.16 Fine structure within martensite plates shown in Fig. 5.15 . A deformation twin, fine transformation twins, and dislocations are shown. Transmission...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... analysis is based on the assumption that the observed microstructure represents the true structure of the samples. Metallography has an advantage over measurements that involve changes in physical properties in that the microstructures can offer clues concerning invariant reactions. For example...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... relationships that reflect structure with respect to different crystal types, but such conditions must be externally formulated and imposed on the model. Equally, special relationships apply if the model is to be used to simulate order-disorder transformations. Fig. 13.2 Simple body-centered cubic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... phase transformations during heat treatment. For example, on heating of ferrite/cementite microstructures, there is a volume contraction when the close-packed atom structure of face-centered cubic austenite forms. On cooling, when the austenite transforms to more open body-centered crystal structures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... diagram of this type probably does not exist. (b) and (c) Typical eutectic diagrams for (b) components having the same crystal structure and (c) components having different crystal structures; the eutectic (invariant) points are labeled E . The dashed lines in (b) and (c) are metastable extensions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... strength levels. Because beta phase is invariably metastable and has a long-term tendency to transform to the equilibrium alpha-plus-beta structure, titanium producers use this tendency (to a point) by aging metastable beta alloys after solution treatment and fabrication. Temperatures of 450 to 650 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... structure has a CN = 12. The fcc structure is found in many important metals sucha as aluminum, copper, and nickel. In addition, the crystal structures of some metals can be altered or “transformed” into a different crystal structure by changing the temperature or by suitable choice of alloy additions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... this is not always the case, it is a trend experienced with many metals. Allotropic transformations are a type of massive transformation. Massive transformations occur by a transition in crystal structure and are characterized by the chemical invariance between parent and product phases. These transformations can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... in Invariant Transformation Structures , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2004 , p. 152 – 164 , 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003734 15. Isothermal Transformation and Cooling Transformation Diagrams , American Society for Metals , 1977 , p 28 16...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... be achieved. However, the processing steps are the key to achieving optimal properties in superalloys. Grain structure is developed by processing. Microstructural changes are invariably produced by dissolving all or most of the carbides and other intermetallic precipitate phases (e.g., γ′ or δ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... the gamma iron structure described subsequently. The difference in atomic packing between alpha and gamma is responsible for the volume expansion that occurs when the higher-density gamma iron transforms to alpha iron on cooling. The unit cell of gamma iron or austenite is shown in Fig. 3.3 . Austenite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... phase diagram showing the invariant point, m , where liquid 1 ( L 1 ) transforms to another liquid ( L 2 ) and solid solution (α). Adapted from Ref 7.1 Liquid copper and liquid lead are completely soluble in each other at high temperatures. However, as shown in the Fig. 7.2 phase diagram...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of transformation hysteresis in shape memory alloys. bainitic structures martensitic structures martensitic transformations nonequilibrium cooling time-temperature-transformation diagrams WHILE MANY OF THE transformations discussed so far occur under equilibrium or near-equilibrium conditions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...-state reactions intermediate phases ternary phase diagrams binary phase diagrams A PHASE is a homogeneous, physically distinct region of a material that differs in structure and/or composition from another region. A phase may be a single chemical substance or a mixture of two or more substances...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Transformations in Metals and Alloys , 2nd ed. , Chapman & Hall , 1992 10.1007/978-1-4899-3051-4 9.5 Martensitic Structures , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2004 , p 165 – 178 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736 9.6 Bramfitt B.L...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... is a single dominant effect—the substantial and, to a large extent, inherent thermal expansion mismatch between stiff, strong fibers and the lower-stiffness, lower-strength matrix. In addition, MMC fabrication, inspection, testing, analysis, life prediction, and general structural design costs will likely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... on the atomic structure of metals, the nature of alloy phases, and the mechanisms involved in phase transformations, including time-temperature effects and the role of diffusion, nucleation, and growth. It also discusses alloying, heat treating, and defect formation and briefly covers condenser tube materials...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and cooling rates are used to generate data for their construction. Because industrial practices almost never approach equilibrium, phase diagrams should be used with some degree of caution. Nevertheless, they are very useful in predicting phase transformations and their resulting microstructures. External...