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interstitial solid solutions

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract When a metal is alloyed with another metal, either substitutional or interstitial solid solutions are usually formed. This chapter discusses the general characteristics of these solutions and the effects of several alloying elements on the yield strength of pure metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and nickel atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Cu TiFe Ti 2 Ni Ti 5 Si 3 Ti 3 Sn Fig. 2.5 Unit cells of the most common crystal structures found in metals: body-centered cubic (top), face-centered cubic (middle), and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) (bottom) Fig. 2.6 Types of solid solution. An interstitial atom...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... some of the metallurgical effects of freezing or solidification, including the segregation of solutes and the formation of metal glasses. freezing interstitial solid solutions metal glasses phase diagrams phase relations phases substitutional solid solutions Phases Solid Solutions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... solubility in a solid solution of it. Those with a diameter ratio less than 0.59 have a high probability for interstitial alloying with it. Fig. 32 Illustration of the lever rule to determine phase compositions at intermediate points along the solidus and liquidus lines (see text) Fig. 11...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... Depending on the relative sizes of the solute and solvent atoms in both substitutional and interstitial solid solutions, the solute atoms typically distort the crystalline structure to some extent. This distortion roughens the crystallographic slip planes along which atoms can most easily move, and reduces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... to remove all carbon and nitrogen from interstitial solid solution and thereby eliminate potential interstitial-atom-dislocation interactions, as described in the following section. Thus, the changes in deformation behavior could be directly attributed only to changes in bcc dislocation mobility. At high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., ASM Handbook , ASM International, 1991. If the solute atom is sufficiently small, it will locate in an interstice between the larger solvent atoms, forming an interstitial solid solution. Diffusion of interstitial atoms occurs by atoms jumping from one interstitial site to another without...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... in the formation of Fe 3 C. The crystal structures of the bcc ferrite and fcc austenite are modified by introducing carbon atoms into the interstices or interstitial sites between iron atoms. Austenite and ferrite in Fe-C alloys and steels are, therefore, interstitial solid solutions. Carbon is an element...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...-crystal superalloy Fig. 3.1 Schematics for (a) a bcc unit cell, (b) a bcc crystal lattice, and (c) and (d) a polycrystalline solid with grains and grain boundaries Fig. 3.2 Schematics showing (a) substitutional and (b) interstitial solid solutions Fig. 3.3 Pictorial views...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... and carbon consist of interstitial solid solutions of carbon in the three polymorphs of iron (namely, austenite, ferrite, and δ-ferrite), together with any excess carbon as elemental graphite. However, due to the more favorable kinetics of nucleation and growth, excess carbon usually forms the metastable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... that show the effect of (a) carbon content and (b) grain size on the uniform elongation ε* of low-carbon steels. Source: Ref 12. 7 Nitrogen in interstitial solid solution has a potent strengthening effect on ferritic microstructures and significantly raises impact transition temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... to produce alternate properties. (b) ELI, extra low interstitial. (c) Beta-STA, solution treatment with beta-phase field followed by aging Cast-plus-HIP Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mo-2Cr+Si room-temperature tensile properties for several heat treatment conditions Table 12.16 Cast-plus-HIP Ti-6Al-2Sn...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Structure—Equilibrium Diagrams 4.2.3 Diffusion, Precipitation, Nonequilibrium 4.2.2.3 Multicomponent Systems Interstitial Solid Solutions Peritectic System (Type 4) 4.2.2.2 Intermediate Phases Continuous Solid Solution (Type 1) 4.2.2.1 Binary Systems Eutectic System (Type 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... atoms have a much smaller atomic diameter than iron and can fit into some of these sites. Thus, carbon is called an interstitial element (another important interstitial element is nitrogen). When an element occupies sites in the iron lattice, the result is called a solid solution. With interstitial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... is large, this effect can dominate over the chemical term. When the size difference between the atoms is very large, then interstitial solid solutions are energetically most favorable ( Fig. 3.18c ). In systems where there is strong chemical bonding between the atoms, there is a tendency for the formation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... stabilize the austenite phase, permitting lower levels of nickel to be used in austenitic alloys. Interstitial atoms of carbon and nitrogen distort the fcc lattice, causing it to expand about 1% linearly per 1 wt% of solute ( Fig. 3 ) ( Ref 2 ). This produces solid solution hardening of the austenite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... is usually present in steels as a solid solution of iron containing carbon or one or more alloying elements such as silicon, chromium, manganese, and nickel. Carbon is an interstitial element, while the larger elements are substitutional. Carbon occupies specific interstitial sites in the bcc iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... solubility of the interstitial elements oxygen and nitrogen makes titanium unique among metals and also creates problems not of concern in most other metals. For example, heating titanium in air at high temperature results not only in oxidation but also in solid-solution hardening of the surface as a result...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... The introduction of AOD refining permitted much lower levels of carbon, as seen in Fig. 3 , opening the door for fully ferritic stainless steels. Ferritic stainless steels are quite similar in their mechanical behavior to carbon steel. The main influence of chromium is to produce some solid solution hardening...