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interstitial solid solution

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... the metallurgical effects of freezing or solidification, including the segregation of solutes and the formation of metal glasses. freezing interstitial solid solutions metal glasses phase diagrams phase relations phases substitutional solid solutions References...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid-to-solid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract When a metal is alloyed with another metal, either substitutional or interstitial solid solutions are usually formed. This chapter discusses the general characteristics of these solutions and the effects of several alloying elements on the yield strength of pure metals. It presents...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Carbon is an interstitial element, while the larger elements are substitutional. Carbon occupies specific interstitial sites in the bcc iron crystalline lattice, while the larger substitutional elements replace or substitute for iron atoms. The two types of solid solutions impart different...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... morphology. It then discusses the concept of solid solutions, the difference between substitutional and interstitial solid solubility, the effect of alloying elements, and the development of intermetallic phases. The chapter also covers the construction and use of binary and ternary phase diagrams and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... interstitial solid solution. Diffusion of interstitial atoms occurs by atoms jumping from one interstitial site to another without permanently displacing any other atoms in the crystal lattice. For interstitial diffusion to occur, the size of the diffusing atoms must be very small compared to that of the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... instability. Fig. 12.2 Schematic diagrams of strain-hardening and flow stress curves that show the effect of (a) carbon content and (b) grain size on the uniform elongation ε* of low-carbon steels. Source: Ref 12. 7 Nitrogen in interstitial solid solution has a potent strengthening effect on...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... titanium atom and so can dissolve in the titanium phase crystal lattice as solid solutions without substituting for titanium atoms. Of course, some interstitial elements also can form second phases with titanium. As is the case for comparably sized elements, interstitial elements can have a preference for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... than 0.6 times the diameter of titanium, alloy elements can enter the metal interstitially. The elements carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen are included in this group ( Ref 3.3 ). The importance of interstitial elements to the properties of titanium is shown later. Atoms in the liquid and solid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... temperature, sintering atmosphere, and cooling rate) can significantly affect the mechanical properties of the as-sintered material. However, heat treatment (solutionizing and aging) is found to minimize the differences in properties ( Ref 42 ). Table 7.12 lists the typical room-temperature mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... decisions. It discusses the basic concepts of fusion welding and the differences between solid-solution-hardened and precipitation-hardened wrought superalloys. It addresses joint integrity, design, weld-related cracking, and the effect of grain size, precipitates, and contaminants. It covers common fusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... strain fields that introduce a strain-energy term into Δ H mix . When the size difference is large, this effect can dominate over the chemical term. When the size difference between the atoms is very large, then interstitial solid solutions are energetically most favorable ( Fig. 3.18c ). In systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., dislocations, and interstitial atoms. During a solid-state phase transformation, normally at least one new phase is formed that has different physical/chemical characteristics and/or a different structure than the parent phase. During nucleation, very small particles or nuclei of the new phase, often...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... substitutional and interstitial solid solutions, the solute atoms typically distort the crystalline structure to some extent. This distortion roughens the crystallographic slip planes along which atoms can most easily move and reduces or impedes the motion of dislocations throughout the crystalline structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... solid solution and thereby eliminate potential interstitial-atom-dislocation interactions, as described in the following section. Thus, the changes in deformation behavior could be directly attributed only to changes in bcc dislocation mobility. At high temperatures, typical ductile stress-strain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... is removed, the material does not return to its previously undeformed shape. Depending on the relative sizes of the solute and solvent atoms in both substitutional and interstitial solid solutions, the solute atoms typically distort the crystalline structure to some extent. This distortion roughens...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... The strengthening mechanisms covered are solid-solution strengthening, cold working, and dispersion strengthening. The effect of grain size on the yield strength of a material is also discussed. cold working creep deformation dispersion strengthening elasticity plasticity solid-solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... solute redistribution, called segregation. Because the atomic arrangement in the liquid phase is less compact than in the solid phases of iron (BCC or FCC), a significant change of volume (contraction) occurs during solidification. (In the case of cast irons, see Chapter 17, “Cast Irons,” in this...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., which remove carbon from solid solution and prevent precipitation of chromium carbides. The most common of these stabilized grades are types 321 and 347. Type 321 contains minimum titanium content of 5 × (C% + N%), and type 347 a minimum niobium content of 8 × C%. Nitrogen must be considered when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... low temperatures, dislocation motion in the bcc structure is severely restricted. As a result, ferrite grains fracture in a brittle manner with little plastic deformation at low temperatures. Ferrite in steels is a solid solution of iron containing some interstitial carbon and (depending on the...