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interstitial diffusion

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Diffusion is the movement of atoms through the crystalline lattice. This chapter discusses the two main types of diffusion that can occur in solids: interstitial diffusion and substitutional diffusion. It describes Fick's first and second laws of diffusion, with emphasis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... atoms to diffuse to the dislocations and again form atmospheres that pin dislocation movement. alloying elements yield strength pure metals substitutional solid solutions interstitial solid solutions relative size factor chemical affinity factor relative valency factor lattice type factor...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... containing some chromium, potentially depleting chromium in the vicinity of their precipitation. The bcc structure of ferrite allows more rapid diffusion than does the fcc structure of austenite. This is true for both the interstitial diffusion of the elements helium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... and Diffusion Substitutional Solid Solutions Interstitial Solid Solutions Solubility Limits Twinning Faults in the Stacking Sequence of Closest-Packed Planes Interstitial Strengthening Hydrogen Embrittlement Like the solubility of salt in water, solid solutions also have solubility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and nickel atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... ) of interstitial elements (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen) compared with substitutional elements in alpha iron. Adapted from: Ref 5 Fig. 9 Arrhenius plot of diffusivity of various metal systems. bcc = body-centered cubic; hcp = hexagonal close-packed; fcc = face-centered cubic. Adapted from: Ref 7...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of Steels ( Ref 3.33 ) and adapted from unpublished work by L. S. Darken. Fig. 3.17 Diffusivity of substitutional, interstitial, and hydrogen atoms in steel as a function of temperature. Source: Ref 3.33 In steel microstructures there are gradients in the concentrations of atoms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... characteristics. For example, interstitial carbon can easily diffuse through the open bcc lattice, whereas substitutional elements diffuse much more slowly. Therefore, carbon responds quickly during heat treatment, whereas substitutional alloying elements behave more sluggishly. Interstitial alloying elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... vacancies originate at free surfaces and move by diffusion into the crystal interior. Fig. 2.27 Frenkel mechanism of diffusion occurs by the simultaneous formation of a vacancy and an interstitial atom. Source: Ref 2.5 Fig. 2.28 Schottky mechanism of vacancy formation As noted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... crystalline lattice, while the larger substitutional elements replace or substitute for iron atoms. The two types of solid solutions impart different characteristics. For example, interstitial carbon can easily diffuse through the open bcc lattice, whereas substitutional elements diffuse much more slowly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., and lower-energy method, is the Schottky mechanism ( Fig. 2.3 ), in which vacancies originate at free surfaces and move by diffusion into the crystal interior. Fig. 2.2 Frenkel mechanism. Simultaneous formation of vacancy and interstitial atom. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 2.3 Schottky mechanism...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... The latter effect was real in early austenitic alloys, such as 321, leading to knife-line corrosion attack after welding, but does not exist in low interstitial ferritic alloys, which have much greater diffusion rates than austenitic alloys. But, since carbon mobility is quite high, it is not practical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... the solidifying ferrite transforms to austenite. Thus, inclusions grow via diffusion of oxygen and sulfur, which, as interstitials, diffuse much more rapidly than the silicon or manganese with which they have the greatest thermodynamic affinity. But precipitate they must, even if the silicon and manganese...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... in the dual-phase steels described in Chapter 12, “Low-Carbon Steels,” in this book. Unpinned dislocations are present when aging time is insufficient to allow interstitial atom diffusion to dislocations or when the interstitial carbon and nitrogen contents are reduced to very low levels, 30 to 50 ppm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
...–1.25 ... ... 0.25 0.75–1.25 ... ... ... rem ERTi-13V-11Cr-3Al 0.05 0.12 0.008 0.03 2.5–3.5 12.5–14.5 ... 10.0–12.0 0.25 ... ... ... ... rem Single values are maximum. (a) Extra-low interstitials for welding similar base metals Dimensions of typical joints...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...) Fluence dependence of fracture toughness ( Ref 6.38 , 6.39 ) Additionally, diffusion of the vacancies and interstitial atoms to sinks causes nonequilibrium segregation and accelerated creep. The effects of accelerated creep can be either beneficial or deleterious. For example, under constant...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter discusses various alloying and processing approaches to increase the strength of low-carbon steels. It describes hot-rolled low-carbon steels, cold-rolled and annealed low-carbon steels, interstitial-free or ultra-low carbon steels, high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels, dual-phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... steel, in annealed condition Solute Type Change in lattice parameter per at.%, nm Strength coefficient for yield strength (a) Strength coefficient for ultimate tensile strength (b) C Interstitial, austenite stabilizer +0.00060 23 35 N Interstitial, austenite stabilizer +0.00084...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... treatments would, of course, sensitize austenitic stainless steels because of the much slower rate of diffusion of chromium in austenite. Clearly, the most straightforward method of preventing intergranular attack in ferritic stainless steels is to restrict their interstitial contents. The results shown...