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internal oxidation

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract Gas carburizing is known to promote internal oxidation in steel which can adversely affect certain properties. This chapter discusses the root of the problem and its effect on component lifetime and performance. It explains that gas-carburizing atmospheres contain water vapor and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter examines methods of internal corrosion prediction for multiphase pipelines and details methodologies to perform internal corrosion direct assessment for natural gas pipelines. Further, real-time monitoring techniques for assessing actual corrosion at critical locations are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...” chromium. In this case, depending on the concentration of the reactive element and atmosphere, the oxide of the reactive element can, in principle, form either on the surface (as has been discussed so far) or internally as discrete oxide particles in a metal matrix through oxygen diffusion into the metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... International , 1987 , p 97 19. Grodner A. , Weld. Res. Counc. Bull. , No. 31 , 1956 20. Walter M. , Schutze M. , and Rahmel A. , Behavior of Oxide Scales on 12Cr-1Mo Steel During Thermal Cycling , Oxid. Met. , Vol 39 ( No. 5/6 ), 1993 , p 389 10.1007/BF00664663...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... (annealed surface). Picral. 1000×. (h) Oxidized at 550 °C for 1 h (abraded surface). Picral. 1000×. Internal oxidation (formation of oxides beneath the surface) takes place when any metal is heated in an environment containing oxygen if: (a) the metal has some, even if limited, solubility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., dimensional stability, and generation of quenching and grinding cracks. They also include insufficient case hardness and improper core hardness, influence of surface carbon content and grain size, internal oxidation, structure of carbides, and inclusion of noncarbide. Details on micropitting, macropitting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract Mechanical treatments such as grinding and shot peening are often employed in the production of case-carburized parts. Grinding, besides restoring precision, removes carbide films, internal oxidation, and high-temperature transformation products. Shot peening strengthens component...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... required to initiate hot corrosion attack. The Type I hot corrosion morphology is typically characterized by a thick, porous layer of oxides with the underlying alloy matrix depleted in chromium, followed by internal chromium-rich sulfides. Low-temperature or Type II hot corrosion generally occurs in the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... place at an exposed surface) Intergranular oxidation (occurring along grain boundaries) Internal oxidation (oxidation taking place below the external surface but not just at grain boundaries) There is ample theoretical and practical understanding of the mechanisms of the oxidation process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The inspection of castings normally involves checking for shape and dimensions, coupled with aided and unaided visual inspection for external discontinuities and surface quality. This chapter discusses methods for determining surface quality, internal discontinuities, and dimensional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... Solids , Vol 48 , 1987 p 1035 10.1016/0022-3697(87)90118-1 6. Knott J.F. , Advances in Fracture Research , Proc. Seventh International Conference on Fracture ( Oxford, U.K. ) 1989 , p 125 10.1016/B978-0-08-034341-9.50025-5 7. Knott J.F. , Fracture 1977 , Vol 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... , ASM Handbook , ASM International , p 599 – 604 ASM , 1988b . Stretch Forming , Forming and Forging , Vol 14 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , p 591 – 598 ASM , 1988c . Three-Roll Forming , Forming and Forging , Vol 14 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , p 616 – 623...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... ASM , 1989a . Milling , Machining , Vol 16 , Metals Handbook , 9th ed. , ASM International , p 303 ASM , 1989b . Trepanning , Machining , Vol 16 , Metals Handbook , 9th ed. , ASM International , p 175 – 180 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002131 ASM , 1989c . Turning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., inboard flap hinge bolt, nose landing gear piston axle, multiple-leg aircraft-handling sling, aircraft hoist sling, internal spur gear, and MLG axle. In addition, the chapter provides information on full-scale fatigue testing, nondestructive testing, and failure analysis of fin attach bolts. high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract In an attempt to explain the stresses encountered in the plastics industry, this article first defines the different types of internal stresses in amorphous polymers. Each type of thermal stress is then discussed in detail, with reference to the mechanism of generation and the effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... these effects. There are other sources of internal voids. Mold reactions, high-temperature oxidation, blow-holes, and entrapped gas result in defects that adversely affect mechanical properties as well as physical acceptability. Nonmetallic inclusions entrained before solidification influence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... these effects. There are other sources of internal voids. Mold reactions, high-temperature oxidation, blow-holes, and entrapped gas result in defects that adversely affect mechanical properties as well as physical acceptability. Nonmetallic inclusions entrained before solidification influence...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.../BF00664797 21. Harper M.A. , Barnes J.E. , and Lai G.Y. , Long-Term Oxidation Behavior of Selected High Temperature Alloys , Paper No. 132, Corrosion/97 , NACE International , 1997 22. Lai G.Y. , unpublished results, 2003 23. Han S. and Young D.J...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... hydrogen, helium, etc.), and damage to the protective oxide. While many of these radiation phenomena are hypothetically important in IASCC, the paucity of and difficulty in obtaining data dictate that key radiation phenomena be identified and studied; to date, the international consensus is that key...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article is a brief account of various factors pertinent to the characterization of materials and analysis of optical components, namely transmission, haze, yellowness, refractive index, surface irregularity, birefringence, internal contamination, surface gloss, and color. In...