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internal oxidation

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract Gas carburizing is known to promote internal oxidation in steel which can adversely affect certain properties. This chapter discusses the root of the problem and its effect on component lifetime and performance. It explains that gas-carburizing atmospheres contain water vapor...
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 12.5 (Part 1) Internal oxidation. 0.4% C (0.41C-0.24Si-0.70Mn, wt%) normalized. (a) Austenitized at 950 °C, cooled slowly at ~100 °C/h. Picral. 1000×. (b) Austenitized at 950 °C, cooled slowly at ~100 °C/h. 1% nital. 1000×. (c) Austenitized at 950 °C, cooled slowly at ~100 °C/h More
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 12.6 (Part 1) Internal oxidation at high temperatures. 0.2% C (0.22C-1.41 Mn-0.05Si-0.07Cu, wt%). (a) Side face of an artificial discontinuity in a billet heated at 1200 °C for 15 min. White arrows indicate the location of the scale/metal interface. 1% nital. 250×. (b) Side face More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.1 A Ni-Cr alloy furnace heater coil suffering extensive internal oxidation attack with little surface scaling after service for 4 to 5 years at temperatures below 900 °C (1650 °F). Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.65 Maximum internal oxidation depth as a function of yttrium content in the alloys after 3000 h of cyclic oxidation tests at 1100 and 1200 °C (2012 and 2192 °F) in air. Source: Ref 92 More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.5 Internal oxidation of a Ni-Cr steel carburized in a laboratory furnace, showing both grain boundary oxides and oxide precipitates within grains. 550× More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.9 Composition gradients associated with internal oxidation. (a) Electron probe microanalysis of manganese, chromium, and nickel within the surface zone of 15C4rNi6 steel. Source: Ref 17 . (b) Chromium and manganese concentration gradients beneath the internally oxidized surface More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.10 Examples of low-carbon surfaces associated with internal oxidation. (a) Source: Ref 1 . (b) Source: Ref 24 More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.16 Representation of a microstructure showing internal oxidation with associated high-temperature transformation products at the surface and spheroidized carbides some distance from the surface More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.21 The effect of internal oxidation on the fatigue strength of carburized 25KhGT steel. With this steel, internal oxidation in accompanied by a decrease in surface carbon. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.23 Effect of internal oxidation and surface microhardness on the fatigue properties of 4 mm modulus gears. See also Table 1.4 . IO, internal oxidation. (a) Fatigue strength plots for 4 mm modulus gears. Information on case-hardened gears given in Table 1.4 . Source: Ref 26 . (b More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.24 Effect of internal oxidation and high-temperature transformation products on the high- and low-cycle bending fatigue strength. (a) Fatigue data on rotating beam tests, 6 mm outside diameter test section, quench 860 °C into oil at 200 °C. Steel composition: 0.75 Mn, 0.86 Cr, 1.48 Ni More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 6.34 Effect of case depth on residual stress. Influence of internal oxidation at the surface of the deep-case test piece is also indicated. Source: Ref 40 More
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Published: 01 June 1983
Figure 5.8 Electrical resistivity of Cu–Fe alloys before and after internal oxidation. More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.30 Scanning electron micrograph showing oxide scales and internal oxides for alloy 601 exposed at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 400 h in Ar-20O 2 -0.25Cl 2 . The results of the EDX analysis of the corrosion products on the areas, as marked No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, and No. 5, are listed More
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.17 Microhardness traverses through the internally oxidized layer of a carburized Cr-Mn-Ti steel (30KhGT). Source: Ref 7 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.53 Oxidation penetration (metal loss + internal attack) as a function of test temperature for 1 year in air for a variety of commercial alloys. Source: Ref 15 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.5 Formation of internal aluminum nitrides beneath external oxide scales and internal oxides in alloy 601 after exposing to a furnace oxidizing atmosphere for approximately 4 to 5 years in a temperature range of 760 to 870 °C (1400 to 1600 °F). (a) Optical micrograph showing the external More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., dimensional stability, and generation of quenching and grinding cracks. They also include insufficient case hardness and improper core hardness, influence of surface carbon content and grain size, internal oxidation, structure of carbides, and inclusion of noncarbide. Details on micropitting, macropitting...