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internal corrosion

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter examines methods of internal corrosion prediction for multiphase pipelines and details methodologies to perform internal corrosion direct assessment for natural gas pipelines. Further, real-time monitoring techniques for assessing actual corrosion at critical locations...
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 14.3 Depth of internal corrosion penetration for Fe-18Cr-0.8Al-1.5Si between the undeformed specimens (open data points) and the deforming specimens (solid data points) under the strain rate of 10 –8 s –1 at 800 °C (1470 °F) in air. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 14.8 Corrosion products formed on the metal surface as well as internal corrosion products formed in alloy HR3C with no external strain imposed on the test specimen when tested at 600 °C (1110 °F) for 2100 h in CO-32H 2 -4CO 2 -0.2H 2 S. Note: the tested specimen surface was plated prior More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 12.15 Internal dendrite corrosion attack that followed general wastage was observed in the overlay of an alloy 622 weld overlay in an alloy 622 overlay superheater tube. Lower-magnification micrographs showing the through-thickness overlay is shown in Fig. 12.16(a) and general surface More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.52 Corrosion rates in terms of metal loss and internal penetration for nickel- and cobalt-base alloys at 900 °C (1650 °F) in Ar-4HCl-4H 2 . Data was based on 8 h tests. Source: Ref 35 More
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Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 28 Internal surface of the flange was free of corrosion. Several secondary stress-corrosion cracks penetrated the flange thickness. 1.5× More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.74 Scanning electron micrograph showing the corrosion products (general corrosion scales and internal corrosion phases) on Type 304H superheater at the severely wasted area. The EDX analysis showed that the corrosion product (area 1) was Cr-Fe-rich sulfide (45.5Cr-33.5Fe-9.2Ni-8.6S More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.36 Corrosion behavior of alloys 59, C-2000, and HR160; tested for 300 h at temperatures from 300 to 800 °C (572 to 1472 °F) in air-2Cl 2 ; (a) decrease in thicknesses as a function of temperature, and (b) depth of internal corrosion attack as a function of temperature. Source: Ref 43 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.39 Corrosion behavior of alumina former alloy 214 and intermetallics Fe 3 Al and TiAl; tested for 300 h at temperatures from 300 to 800 °C (572 to 1472 °F) in air-2Cl 2 ; (a) decrease in thicknesses as a function of temperature, and (b) depth of internal corrosion attack as a function More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.32 Corrosion behavior of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel (10CrMo9 10), alloy 800H, alloy AC66, alloy 45TM and alloy 690 tested for 300 h at temperatures from 300 to 800 °C (572 to 1472 °F) in air-2Cl 2 ; (a) decrease in thicknesses as a function of temperature, and (b) depth of internal corrosion More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... corrosion, resistance to internal corrosion, and mechanical properties. At the outset, it should be noted that ferritic stainless steels, as opposed to austenitic, are optimal for oxidation resistance, especially cyclic oxidation. It is not a difference in the oxide scale. The reason is that the thermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to the fluid in the pipe. However, internal corrosion can occur if an insulating flange is placed in the pipeline and the fluid stream (such as salt water) is highly conductive. In this case, the damage occurs at the point where the current enters the electrolyte from within the pipe. If the pipe is carrying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... mechanism is fluxing by molten chloride salts. In some cases, the corrosion morphology for a weld overlay of a Ni-Cr-Mo alloy involves general metal wastage followed by internal corrosion penetration along dendrites of the weld overlay. This internal dendrite corrosion attack (or penetration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... accidents were due to corrosion. Of the hazardous liquid pipeline accidents caused by corrosion, 65% were due to external corrosion and 34% were due to internal corrosion. For natural gas transmission pipeline accidents, 36% were caused by external corrosion and 63% were caused by internal corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...) S 0.315 (12.4) 0.353 (13.9) 0.419 (16.5) 0.472 (18.6) C-276 0.300 (11.8) 0.320 (12.6) 0.419 (16.5) 0.450 (17.7) (a) Metal loss + internal penetration. Source: Ref 39 Fig. 6.23 Corrosion of several aluminum-containing nickel-base alloys with and without molybdenum in Ar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... can also be found in the article “ Corrosion in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Operations ” which lists U.S. and international standards for both petroleum production and refining operations (refer to the Appendix section, “ Industry Standards ”). Causes of Corrosion This section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the effects of microscopic organisms and the by-products they produce on the electrochemical corrosion of metals. It begins by considering the characteristics of organisms that allow them to interact with the corrosion processes, the mechanisms by which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... situation. Numerous publications exist, including a NACE International Technical Committee Report that details inhibitor injection methods ( Ref 9 ). Corrosion Monitoring The refining industry is a mature industry, and much of the existing process equipment has been in service for many years. Due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... with the underlying alloy matrix depleted in chromium, followed (below) by internal chromium-rich sulfides. Type II hot corrosion is characterized by pitting with little or no internal attack underneath. As the chapter explains, chromium additions make alloys more resistant to all types of hot corrosion attacks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... References ). Complementing print products are video training courses that are available from ASM International (formerly the American Society for Metals) and NACE International (formerly the National Association of Corrosion Engineers). Reference works that list corrodents in alphabetical order and give...