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interatomic bonds

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... single-component and binary solid solutions. It then examines the relationship between the free energy of a solution and the chemical potentials of the individual components. It also explains how to account for the heat of mixing using quasi-chemical models, discusses the effect of interatomic bond...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... associated with diffusion bonding and welding processes. These processes use either deformation or diffusion and limited deformation to produce high-quality joints between both similar and/or dissimilar materials. Specific solid-state welding processes include: Diffusion welding, also commonly referred...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... imposes a severe limitation on joint design. When perfectly clean surfaces are brought into intimate contact, interatomic bonds form a joint. Bond strength is greatest when the mating metals are mutually soluble, but good bonds can be obtained with dissimilar, not otherwise weldable metals and with highly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This appendix provides a detailed overview of the crystal structure of metals. It describes primary bonding mechanisms, space lattices and crystal systems, unit cell parameters, slip systems, and crystallographic planes and directions as well as plastic deformation mechanisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The building block of all matter, including metals, is the atom. This chapter initially provides information on atomic bonding and the crystal structure of metals and alloys, followed by a description of three crystal lattice structures of metals: face-centered cubic, hexagonal close...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... interactions still occur between neighboring atoms in liquids, unlike gases. Pure metals melt at a unique temperature called the melting point . Metals with weak interatomic bonds melt at lower temperatures. This includes several soft metals such as lead, tin, and bismuth. In contrast, the refractory...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... associated with interatomic bonds of various elements. The FTIR system provides an x - y plot similar to that of the EDAX system. The x - y plot shows peaks that correspond to various elements. The EDAX system typically has a library of known compounds and can display these along with the sample trace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...) is another alternative to achieve more uniform compaction of complex geometries. After pressing of a green compact, additional densification is achieved by sintering . During sintering, compacted metal powders are bonded or sintered by heating in a furnace to a temperature that is usually below...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... bonds, respectively.) The ratio of the two types of bonds may vary considerably. Amorphous carbon contains a high concentration of dangling bonds, causing deviations of the interatomic spacing of more than 5%, and noticeable variations in bond angles. Until 1985, the only known elemental forms of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... cracks. Some of the more prominent of the proposed mechanisms are covered in greater detail in the section “ Crack Propagation Mechanisms ” in this article, but they usually assume that breaking of the interatomic bonds of the crack tip occurs by one of the following mechanisms: Chemical solvation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... interatomic bonds at the crack tip ( Ref 9.19 ). At one time, a hydrogen embrittlement SCC model was thought to be inapplicable to magnesium because of the effects that anodic and cathodic polarization have on magnesium SCC. That is, cathodic polarization, which generates hydrogen, generally inhibits SCC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... Some of the more prominent of the proposed mechanisms are covered in greater detail in the section “Crack Propagation Mechanisms” in this chapter, but they usually assume that breaking of the interatomic bonds of the crack tip occurs either by chemical solvation and dissolution or by mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... elongated grains. Source: Ref 18 Intergranular fracture can be caused by several different mechanisms. The decohesive processes can involve the weakening of the atomic bonds, the reduction in surface energy required for localized deformation, molecular gas pressure, the rupture of protective films...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the interatomic bond strengths. The elastic moduli tend to be highest in materials with strong bonding (e.g., covalent solids) and are lowest in polymers. Tensile moduli range from about 15 GPa (2 × 10 6 psi) for lead to over 400 GPa (58 × 10 6 psi) for tungsten ( Table 3.2 ). Other elastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... covalent bonds the atom will form. The electronegativities of the constituent atoms that make up the polymer control its polarity. This, in turn, regulates the ability of the polymer to form the secondary bonds (e.g., hydrogen bonds) that have marked effects on the final thermomechanical properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... group, in which—in contrast to the metal solid solutions—beside the metallic bonds (weak), the covalent and ionic ones (strong) can be present ( Fig. 2.2 ). Fig. 2.2 Classification of the structural materials according to the type of the interatomic bonds Because of these heterodesmic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Material behavior under stress The nondirectional metallic bond allows metals to deform by shear, as illustrated in Fig. 2.11 . For the atoms in the upper plane to slide over those in the lower plane, strong interatomic forces must be overcome by the applied shear stress. When the atoms in the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
...) interface topography and thereby the mechanism of joining of atoms from liquid to the crystal ( Ref 1 – 9 ). Table 1.1 Characteristics of aluminum and silicon crystals Element Crystal lattice Elementary cell Interatomic bonds α sJ ( Ref 4 ) Crystallization front topography System...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... material is exposed. Thus, if a solid is heated, its atoms vibrate more energetically, atomic bonds are weakened, and the material expands as interatomic distances increase. When materials are heated to their melting points, solid-state bond strengths are greatly reduced, atomic arrangements become almost...