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initiating corrosion

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter focuses on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of metals and their alloys. It is intended to familiarize the reader with the phenomenological and mechanistic aspects of stress corrosion. The phenomenological description of crack initiation and propagation describes well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...). This chapter describes those conditions, focusing initially on the effects of alloying elements and temper on solution potential and how it compares to other metals. It then addresses the issue of intergranular corrosion and its role in SCC. It explains how factors such as stress loads, grain structure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Abstract This appendix provides corrosion rate values for various grades of commercially pure and alloyed titanium. The values were derived from published sources and in-house laboratory tests. These data serve only as a starting point or initial guideline for corrosion performance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... concentrator would have given rise to the initiation of a crack. The blade failed by fatigue, the fatigue crack initiating at surface corrosion pits at the root transition region on the convex side of the airfoil section. Because the pits are confined only to the dovetail region, further investigations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... on these findings, investigators concluded that the failure was due to a fatigue crack initiated from a corrosion pit, which may have been caused by chemicals released by the burning of bonding resin. fatigue fracture corrosion pits SEM fractography tail rotor blades visual examination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the challenge of selecting an appropriate stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) test to evaluate the serviceability of a material for a given application. It begins by establishing a generic model in which SCC is depicted in two stages, initiation and propagation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... comparison provides a good indication of the effect of environment on crack initiation. As shown in Fig. 24 , an aggressive environment can promote crack initiation and can shorten the fatigue life of the structure. Corrosion fatigue cracks are always initiated at the surface, unless there are near-surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... the fracture. Cracking is often characterized by crack branching and usually has a delay time prior to crack initiation, with initiation occurring at corrosion pits. Increasing the ferrite content in stainless steel weld metal reduces SCC susceptibility. Approximately 50 vol% ferrite gives optimum SCC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
.... In practice, a metal often exhibits a high initial rate of corrosion. However, the rate can often diminish with time, an effect known as polarization. Polarization can result from reactions at either the anode or the cathode. In some corrosion reactions (e.g., iron in aerated water) that produce anodic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the pipeline. Strategic locations are most efficiently identified through an initial ICDA study. On-line, real-time corrosion monitoring data coupled with key pipeline process and environment data can assist the pipeline operator in understanding how corrosion changes with time and variation in pipeline...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the presence of hydrogen ions when the pH is greater than approximately four. This is an initial illustration of the role of dissolved oxygen (aeration of solutions) in corrosion. As an example, consider the corrosion product formation with the rusting of iron ( Fig. 15.3b ). When the pH is greater than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... finally decreases to the initial corrosion potential. It is evident from Fig. 5.1 that the shape of the anodic polarization curve depends on the electrode material. Although only two environments were considered, the chemical species that are in solution in contact with the electrode material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... , Initiation of Pitting at Sulfide Inclusions in Stainless Steel , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 121 , 1974 , p 467 – 473 10.1149/1.2401840 10. Bond A.P. , Bolling G.F. , Domian H.A. , and Bilon H. , Microsegregation and the Tendency for Pitting Corrosion in High-Purity Aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of localized corrosion ( Ref 21 ) can occur, resulting in corrosion rates of several hundred mils per year ( Ref 22 ). This type of attack is strongly promoted by sulfidic species and requires the presence of some minimum chloride concentration. Although initially recognized in deep sour well environments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... during subsequent exposure ( Ref 37 ). In fact, Wensley ( Ref 40 ) reported that there was no further overlay thinning after an additional 5 years of operation for this boiler. It is believed that the initial corrosion was likely to result from changes in liquor firing practices ( Ref 40 ). Furthermore...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... to the initial development lots and to lots of material used to establish the full design characteristics needed for production of a highly engineered product, such as an airplane. Corrosion performance attributes most regularly tested are resistance to SCC in the short-transverse direction, resistance...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... , Influence of the Environment on the Patina of the Statue of Liberty , Environ. Sci. Technol. , Vol 25 ( No. 8 ), 1991 , p 1400 – 1408 10.1021/es00020a006 61. Eriksson P. , Johansson L.-G. , and Strandberg H. , Initial Stages of Copper Corrosion in Humid Air Containing SO 2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of the occluded solution from the crevice sites (and pits) led to the river pattern of attack outside the initial localized corrosion sites. Fig. 5 Confocal laser scanning micrographs of air aged nickel alloys after cyclic potentiodynamic polarization testing with a crevice former in place at 95 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...-intensity on crack propagation rates, and describes several mechanical fracture models, including corrosion tunnel, film-induced cleavage, and tarnish rupture models. crack initiation crack propagation stress-corrosion cracking STRESS-CORROSION CRACKING (SCC) is a term used to describe service...