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initial heat-flux density

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Book Chapter

By J. W. Ekin
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... critical field, H c2 , and critical current density, J c , described in § 13.4 and § 13.5 . 13.2.3 Measurement of Critical Temperature There are three basic methods of determining the critical temperature: measuring the change in the resistance, magnetic permeability, or heat capacity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...%. Silicon also decreases the saturation induction and the Curie temperature. Typical properties for several soft magnetic materials Table 17.2 Typical properties for several soft magnetic materials Material Composition, wt% Initial relative permeability (μ i ) Saturation flux density ( B s...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
...: The initial cost of wire feeder, power supply, controls, and flux-handling equipment is high. The weld joint needs to be placed in the flat or horizontal position to keep the flux positioned in the joint. The slag must be removed before subsequent passes can be deposited. Because of the high heat input...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
..., starting in its demagnetized state, is magnetized by an external magnetic field, H , it produces a magnetic flux density, B . As H is increased from zero, B increases. The increase in B is nonlinear with respect to H . The line OC in Fig. 8.3 represents the initial magnetization...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... the melt temperature decreases after each charge and how soon the melt temperature increases back to the initial value before charging) Improvements in reverb and forehearth (and holding furnace) heating using immersion heating 7.7 Holding Furnaces and Dosing Equipment Holding and dosing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... coils which set up fields of magnetic induction whose flux is perpendicular to the sheet surface, rather than parallel to it as with a solenoid coil. Such an arrangement is often referred to as transverse-flux induction heating. Figure 6.5 gives the required frequency for efficient heating utilizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This chapters discusses the considerations involved in the qualification and analysis of induction hardening treatments. The discussion covers material selection and prior heat treatment, hardness and case depth, frequency selection, power density and heating time, part and process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... (such as D-6AC), stainless steels, and nickel alloys. Because an arc is used to start the welding in the electroslag process and is used until a pool of molten flux (slag) has been formed that is deep enough to quench the arc, the discontinuities typical of arc welds are usually present in the initial...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... ) and then heated for some time at elevated temperature, the free energy of each part of the alloy will initially be G 1 and G 2 , and the free energy of the welded block will be G 3 . As diffusion occurs to reduce the concentration gradient, the free energies will decrease toward G 4 , the free energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... and, in the latter case, affects the efficiency of hydrogen removal. Moisture in any form: contamination on tools, flux tubes, ingot, scrap, metallurgical metals, grain refiners, and master alloys that may be added to the heat additively affect dissolved hydrogen content up to the applicable solubility limit...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... for induction heating and quenching, the use of magnetic flux concentrators to improve the efficiency of surface heating, and the quenching systems used for induction hardening. The discussion also provides information on time-temperature dependence in induction heating, workpiece distortion in induction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
..., and semiconductor diode lasers are increasingly used for HLAW. The high energy density from the laser process can provide deep weld penetration and high processing speeds. The process can provide lower heat input and less distortion than conventional arc welding. It can also produce narrow welds with small heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... conduction and convection in the evaporant (first-power losses). As the energy density and temperature increase, heat losses through radiation (fourth-power loss, which refers to losses due to differences in temperature between the molten pool, T m , and surroundings, T s , according to T m – T s...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... the need for much operator skill. Furnace joining offers uniform heating of the components of almost any geometry and is suitable for parts that are likely to distort if heated locally. The atmospheric protection afforded leads to economies on the use of flux and on finishing operations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... can be produced that accommodates these changes and produces accurate parts. Understanding and controlling these factors is essential to commercial P/M parts manufacturing. Density Measurement Density is the ratio of mass to volume. For a given material, degree of sintering, and heat treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... fluxes or where heated metal is exposed to the atmosphere. Mating surfaces must be cleaned, and joints must be designed to minimize residual stresses and potential locations for stress concentration (notch effects). In joining any two metals, the danger exists of having galvanic corrosion if the part...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of the interface that grows ahead of the remainder enters a region in the liquid that is at a lower temperature. The initial spikes that form remain isolated at first because as they grow by solidification, they release their latent heat of fusion into the adjacent liquid causing a localized increase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... of which is shown in Fig. 7.5 . During the initial, or f, stage, the steel workpiece is heated without any phase transformations; the resistivity increases, the impedance increases, and the coil current drops. When the f/p stage begins, the relative magnetic permeability of the workpiece drops. Thus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... The highest incidence of cracking occurred in peak heat flux regions, corresponding to the greatest fuel-cladding interaction and highest stresses and strains. Similar stainless steel cladding in PWR service exhibited fewer instances of intergranular failure. At that time, the PWR failures were attributed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... applications. However, planning during subsequent transformation when the al- for such use should begin during the initial Textured alloys may be accepted for selected loys are aged after cooling from the forging design stage rather than waiting and trying to or solution heat treatment temperature. fit...