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initial heat-flux density

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
..., starting in its demagnetized state, is magnetized by an external magnetic field, H , it produces a magnetic flux density, B . As H is increased from zero, B increases. The increase in B is nonlinear with respect to H . The line OC in Fig. 8.3 represents the initial magnetization...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... Abstract Arc welding applies to a large and diversified group of welding processes that use an electric arc as the source of heat to melt and join metals. This chapter provides a detailed overview of specific arc welding methods: shielded metal arc welding, flux cored arc welding, submerged arc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of a material to transfer heat is the thermal conductivity, q , which is defined as: (Eq 17.7) q = − k ( d T d x ) where q is the heat flux, or heat flow, per unit time per unit area (W/m 2 ), k is the thermal conductivity (W/m · K), and dT / dx is the temperature gradient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... soldered joints. Failures are often traceable directly to poor cleaning and inadequate fluxing. Surfaces to be joined should be chemically cleaned (i.e., to make them free of heat treatment scale, corrosion products, grease, etc.) prior to heating, and the joint areas should be fluxed as soon as possible...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This chapters discusses the considerations involved in the qualification and analysis of induction hardening treatments. The discussion covers material selection and prior heat treatment, hardness and case depth, frequency selection, power density and heating time, part and process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... losses. The use of a magnetic flux concentrator enables selective local heating on workpiece/product areas with complex geometry. Figure 23 shows a straight conductor with current density distribution in points “A” and “B” for three cases ( Ref 19 , 42 ): Current density distribution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... and hydrogen in gas fluxes increase hydrogen levels and, in the latter case, affects the efficiency of hydrogen removal. Moisture in any form: contamination on tools, flux tubes, ingot, scrap, metallurgical metals, grain refiners, and master alloys that may be added to the heat additively affect dissolved...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... (diffusion) and reduction of stress. Considerable lower energies are introduced in vacuum-based ion plating than in plasma-based ion plating (current densities of approximately 0.01 W/cm 2 compared to 0.25 W/cm 2 ) [ Beat 2005 ]. When resistance heating is used for vapor generation, relatively few ions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... ) and then heated for some time at elevated temperature, the free energy of each part of the alloy will initially be G 1 and G 2 , and the free energy of the welded block will be G 3 . As diffusion occurs to reduce the concentration gradient, the free energies will decrease toward G 4 , the free energy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... This chapter examines the metallurgy, composition, processing, and mechanical properties of aluminum and its alloys, both cast and wrought forms. It also covers heat treating and basic temper designations, including annealed, work hardened, solution heat treated, and solution heated treated and aged...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... because of the presence of an induction coil (single-shot and scanning applications) or the fact that the part is moving through the coil (scanning methods of induction heating). For this reason, contact thermocouples are normally used during initial trials to set up a particular process. The two most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... 2 O 3 + 2 Al → 2 Fe + Al 2 O 3 + Heat ↑ ( 850  kJ ) The intense superheat set free during the reaction generates iron and aluminum oxide in liquid form. Because each component has a different density, they separate automatically within seconds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...; i.e, the material is completely solid below the solidus temperature. On heating, melting is initiated on reaching this temperature. The solidus temperature varies with composition.) The faying surfaces are first coated with a flux that melts while the parts are being heated. The flux dissolves any...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of the part from overheating or arcing at contacts. Another advantage of low voltage is freedom from arc flashes if a prod slips or is withdrawn before the current is turned off. The field strength and flux density used must be determined for each type of weldment. An overly strong field will cause...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... or in conjunction, may act to significantly increase the rate of corrosion attack by producing deposits on the surface when the alloy is at high temperature. This latter corrosion has been called hot corrosion and is invariably associated with deposits on the surface of the component and the subsequent fluxing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... enters a region in the liquid that is at a lower temperature. The initial spikes that form remain isolated at first because as they grow by solidification, they release their latent heat of fusion into the adjacent liquid causing a localized increase in the temperature. Consequently, parallel spikes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.9781627083157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
.... Such steels are not purchased to magnetic specifications. Although low-carbon steels exhibit power losses higher than those of silicon steels, they have better permeability at high flux density. This combination of magnetic properties, coupled with low price, makes low-carbon laminated steels especially...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... for joining precipitation-strengthened superalloys. It is a process in which the heat for welding is generated by an arc established between a flux-covered consumable electrode and a workpiece. The electrode tip, molten weld pool, arc, and adjacent areas of the workpiece are protected from atmospheric...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... heat transfer. It should tie up all surface oxides present, including any refractory oxides. AMS 3417 flux has an active range of 760 to 1204 °C (1400 to 2200 °F), which is suitable for fluxing refractory oxides. An ideal flux should have an active range’ that is 111 °C (200 °F) higher than...