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ingot design

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Published: 01 August 2018
to resist the stress occurring once the ingot shrinks away from the mold. This type of ingot design greatly reduces the chance of surface hot cracks called “panel cracks”. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
solidification. The liquid metal contained in the hot top can feed the ingot during the whole solidification process, compensating for shrinkage. All shrinkage volume is concentrated in the hot top. A combination of proper mold taper and mold design with an adequate hot top prevents formation of a secondary pipe More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... or <italic>xxx</italic>.2) Table A-2 (Part 1) Composition limits for unalloyed and alloyed aluminum castings ( xxx .0) and ingots ( xxx .1 or xxx .2) Designation Composition, wt% Others Al, min AA No. Former Products (a) Si Fe Cu Mn Mg Cr Ni Zn Ti Sn Each Total 100.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This appendix provides detailed information on design deficiencies, material and manufacturing defects, and service-life anomalies. It covers ingot-related defects, forging and sheet forming imperfections, casting defects, heat treating defects, and weld discontinuities. It shows how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... for the repair at right was insufficient to completely remove the casting defect. Courtesy of MRS Logistica S.A. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In conventional ingot casting, solidification is basically controlled via the thermal aspects of the phenomenon. Proper design of the mold (taper, height/diameter ratio...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... involved in converting cast ingots into mill products. argon oxygen decarburization cast ingots electric arc furnace melting electroslag remelting mill products superalloys vacuum arc remelting vacuum induction melting Solidification of Superalloys Introduction The solidification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... this assumption. Fig. 18.6 Relationship between grain size and pour temperatures in beryllium ingots. •, elevated mold temperature; °, ambient mold temperature. Source: Krenzer 1979 Goosey et al. [1962] investigated many factors associated with mold design, feed purity, heat flow during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the design and operation of melting furnaces as well as melting practices and the role of fluxing. It also discusses casting methods, nonferrous casting alloys, and atomization processes used to make metal powders. atomization foundry casting melting furnaces nonferrous casting alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract In forgings of both ferrous and nonferrous metals, the flaws that most often occur are caused by conditions that exist in the ingot, by subsequent hot working of the ingot or the billet, and by hot or cold working during forging. The inspection methods most commonly used to detect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... die castings and zinc alloy ingot for die casting Table 1 Nominal compositions of 4% Al hypoeutectic zinc alloy die castings and zinc alloy ingot for die casting Alloy (a) Composition, % UNS No. ASTM designation Common designation Cu Al Mg Fe max Pb max Cd max Sn max Ni Zn...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
...: Principal alloying constituent(s) Second and third digits: Specific alloy designation (number has no significance but is unique) Fourth digit: Casting (0) or ingot (1, 2) designation Variations in the composition limits that are too small to require a change in numeric designation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... This chapter examines the metallurgy, composition, processing, and mechanical properties of aluminum and its alloys, both cast and wrought forms. It also covers heat treating and basic temper designations, including annealed, work hardened, solution heat treated, and solution heated treated and aged...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the basic steps in the production of titanium ingots and their subsequent conversion to standards product forms. It explains how titanium ore is reduced to a spongy residue, then granularized, compacted, and melted (along with alloying additions) to form an ingot...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... that have been previously hot worked. For this reason, hot working is discussed before cold working, which is detailed in the next chapter. 11.2 Main Effects of Hot Working 11.2.1 Effects on Mechanical Strength Generally, hot working is the first step in forming ingots and products from continuous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... are designed to run 24/7 for nearly 15 years before relining. Coke is obtained by heating crushed coal in a coke oven in the absence of air. Coke ovens are 13 to 15 m (40 to 50 ft) long and 4 to 7 m (15 to 25 ft) high. The carbonization of coal at high temperatures (1100 °C or 2010 °F) in an oxygen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... diameters.) At the turn of this century, improved vacuum arc remelting (VAR) techniques and ultra-tight composition control have expanded the size capability of IN-718 to 30 in. ingot, resulting in the ability to process IN-718 to the large disk sizes needed in modern industrial gas turbines. Advanced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... and be hazardous. Handling ingots with large molten interiors is also dangerous. As noted, a solenoid around the water jacket can provide control of the arc and the molten pool, but they are not very useful for overcoming extraneous magnetic effects from poor furnace designs and locations. Well-designed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... the early 1900s. Moreover, the metal did not become widely used until the second half of the twentieth century. However, titanium now has the accumulated experience of some 50 years of modern industrial practice and design application to support its use. Much of this use has come in military applications...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Bare rolling (i.e., no cladding used) of ingot material has been performed on a production scale [ Leslie 1979 ]. A specially designed in-line furnace with doors at both ends and mounted on the roll tables allows direct transfer of the machined beryllium billet (or sheets) from furnace to rolls...