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induced crack size

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... or billets; these are described in the previous section. Internal flaws often appear as cracks or tears, and they can result either from forging with too light a hammer or from continuing forging after the metal has cooled down below a safe forging temperature. Bursts can also occur during the forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...) Heat-Affected Zone Cracks Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (Cold Cracking) Lamellar Tearing An example of this would be part-through drill holes in a bicycle handlebar stem, resulting in fatigue initiation at the holes and subsequent fracture ( Fig. 25 ). Four types of cracking are a concern...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... such as porosity and hot cracking, and the properties of the weld metal. Inherent to the welding process is the formation of a molten weld pool directly beneath the heat source which contains impurities. The molten metal volume is small compared with the size of the base metal. The composition of the molten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... stress distribution is also increased ( Fig. 8.5 ). Excessive down feeds and cross feeds can cause burning and cracking. Shot peening is a surface treatment that increases skin hardness and induces compressive stresses into the immediate surface of the workpiece. It can also remove directional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Fig. 24 (a) AISI S5 tool steel hammer head that cracked during heat treatment. The fracture was caused by quench cracking by the decarburized surface (b) and deep stamp mark (arrows). Actual size. Source: Ref 16 Fig. 25 Quench crack promoted by the presence of a deep, sharp stamp mark...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... include inadequate or inappropriate coatings, the presence of strong electrolytes, and discontinuities in the coating. Stress-corrosion cracking can be induced by a combination of corrosion and tensile stresses. (Tensile stresses are frequently present in metallic components.) If a fracture occurs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of penetrant that seeps into the developer, the crack width can appear 100 times larger than its actual size. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 21 Variation in density of eddy current as a function of depth below the surface of a conductor, known as skin effect. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 22 Standard depths...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... the onset of necking, because the geometry changes induce local triaxial stress components from the tensile load. The cavities grow and, through microvoid coalescence, result in a crack that soon causes fracture. Such cavitation processes in metals typically occur after the onset of necking (or from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... that relatively small flaws (20 to 50 μm in radius) can act as sources of failure. These flaws can be processing defects, such as pores or inclusions, or surface cracks produced during machining or handling. Also, because their critical fracture toughness is low, flaw sizes in polycrystalline ceramics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... may be sufficient to crack the structure. Corrosion can induce a leak path if the corrosion is deep enough to weaken the container or vessel. Chemical incompatibility can eat through a container or vessel wall if the structure is not compatible with the fluid being contained. Foreign object...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.9781627083096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... and uncontrolled crack growth. The essential difference from the strength-of-materials approach is that the fracture mechanics approach explicitly introduces a new physical parameter: the size of a (real or postulated) cracklike flaw. In fracture mechanics, the size of a crack is the dominant structural...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
..., copper Stainless steel, alumina Particle size 1 μm 100 μm 10 μm Forming route Die compaction, additive manufacturing Die compaction Extrusion, injection molding, additive manufacturing Example binder Paraffin wax, polyvinyl glycol, acrylic Stearic acid, zinc stearate Paraffin wax...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Unalloyed retained austenite Marginal increase in K Ic by crack blunting Alloyed retained austenite Significant increase in K Ic by transformation-induced toughening Interlath and intralath carbides Decrease K Ic by increasing the tendency to cleave Impurities (P, S, As, Sn) Decrease...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... material characteristics. Techniques in this area include energy-dispersive analysis of x-rays, spectroscopy, chromatography, and others. The failure analysis team should select appropriate examination techniques based on hypothesized failure modes. If the team suspects, for example, that cracks...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of induced stress. It is well known that parts will change in size due to metallurgical phase changes during heating and cooling procedures and will deform as induced stresses are relieved by the application of heat ( Ref 1 ). As alluded to earlier, distortion can be categorized into two groups or types...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... size, would undoubtedly have shown large differences in fatigue life; the tougher material very likely would have outlasted the less-tough material by a sizable factor. Thus, fracture toughness enters as an important material variable whenever an appreciable part of the life is in the crack growth...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... zones) Tool marks and dents Creep voiding/cracking Local “hard spots” (solute-enriched phases) … … Note: In this table, the term defect is defined as “a feature, sized between 1 μm and 1 mm, that impairs the mechanical integrity and performance of a component.” Effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... 4 Combination progressive-spinning method of flame hardening. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 5 Magnetic fields and induced currents produced by various induction coils. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 1 Cross section of three sizes of water-hardening tool steel (W1) after heating to 800 °C (1475 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... expansion Differences in thermal conductivity Corrosion problems including galvanic corrosion, oxidation, hydrogen-induced cracking, and sensitization Weld Metal In the fusion welding of dissimilar-metal joints, the most important consideration is the weld metal composition and its properties...