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in-plane unidirectional loading

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... modulus, msi 1.16 1.16 1.31 1.31 0° compression strength, ksi 131 36.3 189 232 0° compression modulus, msi 6.09 10.9 16.7 21.8 In-plane shear strength, ksi 8.70 6.53 13.4 13.8 In-plane shear modulus, msi 0.580 0.304 0.638 0.638 Interlaminar shear strength, ksi 10.9...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... materials have the same material properties in all directions, and normal loads create only normal strains. By comparison, anisotropic materials have different material properties in all directions at a point in the body. There are no material planes of symmetry, and normal loads create both normal strains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
.... , Development of a Vacuum Bagging Technique for Autoclave Curing of Filament Wound Thin-Walled Tubes , Mater. Manuf. Process. , Vol 10 ( No. 1 ), 1995 , p 1 – 10 10.1080/10426919508934993 8.24 Swanson W.R. , Toombes G.R. , and Beckwith S.W. , In-Plane Shear Properties of Composites...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... are adversely affected by both temperature and moisture; composites are weak in the out-of-plane direction, where the matrix carries the primary load and should not be used where load paths are complex (e.g., lugs and fittings); composites are susceptible to impact damage, and delaminations or ply separations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...-of-plane loading. The performance of a composite laminate depends on its fiber and matrix constituents, as well as fiber fraction, orientation, and stacking sequence. The layup of a composite laminate can be classified in four general categories: Unidirectional Cross-ply Angled-ply Quasi...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... if the plane of the crack is near the end of the fiber. If it is not near the end, the fiber will fracture. Figure 10.5 is a picture showing the pullout of silicon carbide fibers in a titanium matrix. Fig. 10.4 Sketch showing some fibers fracturing at a crack and others pulling out. Source: Ref 10.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... and assembly costs; composites are adversely affected by both temperature and moisture; composites are weak in the out-of-plane direction, where the matrix carries the primary load; composites are susceptible to impact damage and delaminations, or ply separations can occur; and composites are more difficult...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... are used to obtain the necessary data to calculate the shear strength, modulus, and strain-to-failure. This test method yields only the in-plane lamina shear properties. Other methods must be used to obtain data for laminates. Since this test is essentially a ± 45-degree tension test, the ± 45-degree...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... the direction of the stress component. For example, the shear stress component τ xy operates in the y -direction and the x denotes the outward normal to the xy plane. Composite laminates constructed of unidirectional plies are almost always loaded in plane stress conditions, that is, in the 1-2 plane...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... epoxy resin; however, other reinforcements and even unidirectional material forms are available. These materials have several advantages over wet lay-up: (1) because they are prepregs, the resin content is much more tightly controlled; (2) there is no chance for mixing errors that can occur with liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., such as compression, shear, bondlines, and potential “hot spots” caused by out-of-plane loads. Design and test a series of test specimens, each of which simulates a single selected failure mode and a load–environment condition. Compare the test results to previous analytical predictions and adjust analysis models...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
...) along the basal planes (in this case, the ABABAB stacking sequence). Carbon fibers actually consist of graphite and nongraphitic carbonaceous material. The graphitic phase is in the form of crystallites with discrete dimensions that can be oriented differently from each other, with high-stiffness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... paper, 80 grade (grit size, 175 μm); distance slid, 10 m (33 ft). O P , fabric parallel to the sliding plane; O N , fabric normal to the sliding plane; AF, aramid fiber; CF, carbon fiber; HY, hybrid; GF, glass fiber. (a) PEI AF (O P ) showing extensive elongation and fibrillation of ductile and soft AF...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Abstract Ceramic-matrix composites possess many of the desirable qualities of monolithic ceramics, but are much tougher because of the reinforcements. This chapter explains how reinforcements are used in ceramic-matrix composites and how they alter energy-dissipating mechanisms and load...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... torsional fatigue causes approximately 45° spiral fatigue cracks on opposite diagonals. The original shear crack was in the longitudinal shear plane; then each pair of torsional fatigue cracks developed at a 45° angle to the shaft axis. Fig. 36 Characteristic X-shaped crack pattern in a grade 1045...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.9781627083386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... that influence the results. The predominant mode of plastic deformation in titanium is slip. The most common crystallographic slip planes in hexagonal (alpha) titanium are basal, prismatic, and pyramidal. The planes involved during deformation depend on alloy composition, temperature, grain size, and crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
.... A fracture is macroscopically brittle at the macroscale if it is on a plane normal to the maximum normal stress (condition 4 in Fig. 38 ). A fracture is considered to be macroscopically ductile when the fracture surfaces are inclined to an imposed load (slant fracture or plane stress). Toughness is higher...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
.... and Hahn H.T. , Introduction to Composite Materials , Technomic Publishing , 1980 An interlaminar fracture occurs when the load is applied perpendicular to the composite laminate and failure occurs in the plane of the reinforcement. Interlaminar fractures occur following mode I tension...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...) is very small, plane-strain conditions can develop even for small thicknesses. This is an important conclusion because it means that data can be obtained from thin specimens and applied quite generally. During region II growth in the linear crack growth region, the Paris law can be used to determine...