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impurity levels

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... as the area labeled “high impurity level” in Fig. 15.2 . The name microsegregation is used because the segregation spacing is on a microscopic scale, as dictated by the micron-level spacing, d , of the dendrites. The noniron atoms deliberately added to the iron to make steels, such as manganese...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... steels 1340 0.40 1.75 … 1518 0.18 1.25 … 1541 0.41 1.45 … All steels contain a low level of impurity elements that result from the steelmaking process. These impurity elements can be eliminated from laboratory-prepared steels, where cost is not a problem. However, steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... a good combination of strength and ductility. Aluminum alloys are among the easiest of all metals to form and machine. The precipitation-hardening alloys can be formed in a relatively soft state and then heat treated to much higher strength levels after forming operations are complete. In addition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... is the parabolic rate coefficient, t is the time at temperature, and c is a constant. The oxidation behavior, being very sensitive to impurity levels and fabrication practice, can exhibit a broad range of behaviors. After performing tests for up to 5000 h in flowing oxygen (containing less than 12 ppm...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... transformation to beta, and the beta transus, above which the alloy is all-beta. Between these temperatures, both alpha and beta are present. Transus temperatures vary with impurity levels and the range of alloy additions. Table 1 Ranges and effects of some alloying elements used in titanium Alloying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... system by which they are defined, and the applications for which they are suited. It then explains how primary alloying elements, second-phase constituents, and impurities affect yield strength, phase formation, and grain size and how they induce structural changes that help refine certain alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... becomes loaded with dissolved impurities leached from the surface and subsurface. The level of dissolved salts determines the quality of water and its subsequent use. Whether the quality of water to be used for steam generation in a thermal power plant is adequate or not is determined by two main...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... as chains or pins in jewelry. However, some modern materials specifications require exceptional refining techniques. Silicon (as well as germanium and other metals) used in the semiconductor industry must be produced at controlled purity levels equal to and exceeding less than one impurity atom for every...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... c/a factor, temperature, strain rate, stacking fault energy, and impurity level. The critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) as a function of temperature for the different slip systems is shown in Fig. 13.3 . Notice the temperature ranges necessary to have basal slip compared to prismatic slip...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... (not more than a few percent); for heavily deformed grades, differences in thermal expansion could exceed 20% [ Scaffidi-Argentina et al. 2000 ]. Both the specific heat and thermal conductivity of beryllium are claimed to be relatively insensitive to fabrication method, low levels of impurity...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... = 1 T (10 kG). Steel producers utilize raw materials and melting methods that provide impurity levels for those alloys guaranteed to provide a certain level of magnetic performance. In certain cases, particularly with fully processed silicon steels, the producer then utilizes a decarburization...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... , “ Impurity Induced Embrittlement of Rotor Steel, ” EPRI Report CS 3248, Vol 1 , Electric Power Research Institute , Palo Alto, CA , Nov 1983 93. Viswanathan R. and Hudak S.J. Jr. , The Effect of Impurities and Strength Level on Hydrogen Induced Cracking in a Low Alloy Turbine Steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... content. Source: Ref 9 Fig. 19.14 Microstructure of low-carbon steel. Source: Ref 10 All 10 xx -series carbon steels contain manganese at levels between 0.25 and 1.00 wt%. Manganese is added to counteract the effects of sulfur, which is always present as an impurity. Sulfur reacts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... to produce fine-particle powders. A typical analysis of this powder compared with several other powders that yielded material of the same grain size after hot pressing is shown in Table 19.2 . It is apparent that the I-400 beryllium powder reflects an increase in all impurity levels due to the elaborate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... the electrolytic beryllium contains significant levels of chlorine, and the reduced beryllium contains magnesium and magnesium fluoride as impurities. Due to the criticality of applications, beryllium needs to be purified to very high levels of cleanliness. Vacuum distillation, zone refining, and electrorefining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... is properly attributed to IASCC in all instances. While IASCC is of primary interest in LWR core materials, it is also of concern in applications such as fusion reactors and high-level radioactive waste containers. To date, IASCC in LWR reactor internals has been discovered during routine inspections...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... be provided, and the properties that it must possess in order to be used effectively in the intended application. Practically all of the commercially available alloys produced today are manufactured using melting and solidification techniques that have been refined over time to produce an acceptable level...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... precipitates. S-65H is a commercial beryllium grade that has the best high-temperature ductility of the conventional impact-ground beryllium grades. The material also has a lower metallic impurity level than all structural aluminum grades. The lower impurity content of S-65H makes it especially compatible...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... is selected for its excellent corrosion resistance, especially in applications where high strength is not required. Yield strengths of commercially pure grades may vary from about 170 MPa (25 ksi) to about 480 MPa (70 ksi) simply as a result of variations in the interstitial and impurity levels, with strength...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... even when impurities are reduced to low levels. However, beryllium does show improved ductility at temperatures above 205 to 260 °C (400 to 500 °F), where more crystal deformation modes become available. For example, at 400 °C (750 °F), it has a tensile elongation as high as 50%. Beryllium transforms...