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impurity elements

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Published: 01 December 2001
Fig. 25 Influence of phosphorus, antimony, arsenic, and tin impurity elements on the temper embrittlement susceptibility of nickel-chromium experimental steels based on the change in (a) 50% fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) and (b) 100% fibrous FATT after aging at 450 °C (840 °F More
Image
Published: 01 December 2001
Fig. 26 Influence of phosphorus, antimony, arsenic, and tin Impurity elements on the temper embrittlement susceptibility of nickel-chromium-molybdenum experimental steels based on the change in (a) 50% fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) and (b) 100% fibrous FATT after aging at 450 More
Image
Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 2.28 Effect of impurity elements on the impact strength of joints made in mild steel using an Ag-Cu-Zn-Cd filler alloy. Adapted from Boughton and Sloboda [1970] More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Magnesium occupies the highest anodic position on the galvanic series and can be subject to severe corrosion. The corrosion problem is due to the impurity elements iron, nickel, and copper. However, the use of higher-purity magnesium alloys has led to corrosion resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract Steels contain a wide range of elements, including alloys as well as residual processing impurities. This chapter describes the chemical composition of low-alloy AISI steels, which are classified based on the amounts of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel they contain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... classification system by which they are defined, and the applications for which they are suited. It then explains how primary alloying elements, second-phase constituents, and impurities affect yield strength, phase formation, and grain size and how they induce structural changes that help refine certain alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., and noncatalytic. However, commercial aluminum alloys contain alloying elements, impurity elements, precipitated phases and intermetallic constituent particles. The precipitated phases and intermetallic particles can be anodic or cathodic relative to the matrix or can switch between the two with time as a result...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Elements Commercial plain carbon steels inevitably contain small concentrations of various impurity elements that, in solution, change both the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the transformations of austenite. Consequently, the phase (or constitutional) diagram and the IT and CC diagrams...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
.... The most common impurity elements are listed below with their principal levels and effects. Aluminum Traces of aluminum in a tin-lead solder bath can seriously affect soldering qualities. More than 0.005% of the metal can cause grittiness, lack of adhesion, and surface oxidation of the solder alloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and tungsten both have very high elastic moduli and high ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs). On the other hand, niobium and tantalum have lower moduli, and the DBTTs are below room temperature. In all cases, their DBTTs ( Fig. 31.3 ) are sensitive to impurity elements that segregate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of phases coexisting simultaneously. Stainless steel is an exceptional alloy system in that it is not a dilute solution. Alloy steels may contain several percent of alloying elements, such as carbon, manganese, nickel, molybdenum, chromium, and silicon, in addition to the impurities sulfur, oxygen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... Figure 15.4 presents an illustration of the microsegregation caused by dendritic solidification. The steel had a phosphorus impurity level of 0.07%. Similar to the elements discussed previously, the phosphorus atoms segregate into the interdendritic liquid between the dendrites during solidification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... screw dislocations stacking sequence Problem 1: Low-Density Steels There is significant interest in developing low-density steels to reduce the weight of vehicles and hence their fuel consumption. One method is to dissolve light impurity atoms in Fe. Take a look at the first 20 elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... remelted scrap. These “secondary” compositions specify broader impurity ranges and include additional elements as impurities to reflect variations in raw materials. By contrast, primary alloys that are produced from smelted aluminum, metallurgical metals, and master alloys display more restrictive and more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...%. The addition of alloying elements shifts the nose of the TTT diagram to the right, thus allowing thicker sections to be hardened or allowing less drastic quenches. The effect of alloying elements and section size on hardenability is illustrated in Fig. 11.7 . In this example, both the 1040 and 4140 steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of alloying elements and impurities to the grain-boundary regions. These heterogeneities, which can also develop during subsequent processing such as welding or heat treatment, can produce different electrochemical characteristics at the grain boundary relative to the grain interior and can lead...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627083898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... are attributed to alloying elements (for example, the carbon, manganese, and silicon in carbon steels), and the detrimental effects in carbon steels are attributed to residual or impurity elements (for example, sulfur, phosphorus, and copper), depending on amount and distribution. Steel Specifications...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... 0.26 InP 1.3 0.47 0.015 Extrinsic Semiconduction The addition of even very small amounts of impurities to a semiconductor greatly increases its conductivity. For example, impurities of group V elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, bismuth) add an extra electron, which can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... and their relevance in design and manufacturing. It begins with a review of compositional impurities, the physical arrangement of atoms in solid solution, and the factors that determine maximum solubility. It then describes different types of structural imperfections, including point, line, and planar defects...