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impure metals

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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 5.15 Effects of metallic impurities on the 649 °C/690 MPa (1200 °F/100,000 psi) stress-rupture life of Unitemp-718. Source: Ref 12 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... crystal structures, the ability to predict the movement of dislocations, the influence of impurities on defects, the relationship between gain size and material properties, the identification of specific types of defects, the selection of compatible metals for vacuum environments, and the effect...
Image
Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 5.1 Characteristic cooling curves (a) for pure metal with no foreign matter present and (b) for pure metals with foreign matter present. The presence of impurities reduces the amount of supercooling because impurities produce a strong nucleating effect, but the melting point itself More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... of lead used in battery grids, type metals, and bearings. It, likewise, discusses the use of tin in various types of solder and in bearings and provides composition and property data for application-specific designations and grades. The article also discusses the effect of impurities in tin-lead solders...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the compositions, structures, and properties of the most common grades of soft magnetic metals and permanent magnet alloys. It explains how alloying additions and impurities affect the magnetic properties of these materials, which include commercially pure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... Abstract This chapter presents an overview and survey of solder alloy systems. Extensive reference is made to phase diagrams and their interpretation. The chapter describes the effect of metallic impurities on different solders. The chapter concludes with a review of the key characteristics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... Abstract The toughness of a material is its ability to absorb energy in the form of plastic deformation without fracturing. It is thus a measure of both strength and ductility. This chapter describes the fracture and toughness characteristics of metals and their effect on component lifetime...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... , and their mobility, μ, σ = n μ q Mobility is the ratio of drift velocity to the electric field. Metallic Conduction Metals are excellent conductors. Table 4.1 lists the conductivities of some metals. Temperature and impurities affect the conductivities of metals. Their effects can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... and their relevance in design and manufacturing. It begins with a review of compositional impurities, the physical arrangement of atoms in solid solution, and the factors that determine maximum solubility. It then describes different types of structural imperfections, including point, line, and planar defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and undersized metallics (<20 mesh) are dissolved in acid. Customer scrap that does not meet specifications in terms of impurities is melted and cast as anodes for electrorefining. 27.2.1 Copper Recovery Caustic solutions are used for treating scrap dissolver solutions and spent nitric acid pickle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of impurities present in it. For instance, dissolved gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ammonia, and dissolved solids in BFW corrode various metals and alloys used in boiler applications. LowpH and high-pH conditions also lead to corrosion of boiler components at high temperatures. At a low pH, acid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... is not a problem. However, steel is an industrial metal produced in megatonnage quantities, and economic production processes result in a low level of certain impurity elements present in steel. These elements and their maximum levels traditionally found in steels are shown in Table 6.2 . These four elements...
Image
Published: 01 June 1983
Figure 7.7 Tensile behavior of vacuum melted iron, grain size ASTM No. 8, total carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen content less than 70 ppm, metallic impurities less than 1000 ppm; yield and ultimate strengths and elongation to fracture ( Smith and Rutherford, 1957 ). More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... (physical metallurgy). All of these processes can influence the composition, structure, stress level, and impurities in metals and alloys and, thus, their corrosion behavior. Another process, welding, is usually applied after metals are formed and shaped by metallurgical techniques. Welding produces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... metals: there is no such thing as a low temperature resistivity for these metals. Changes in impurity and defect content, which are minor from an industrial standpoint, may cause dramatic changes in the low-temperature resistivity. For example, recent measurements of commercial copper satisfying the CD...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., the remaining gold flakes or nuggets are not necessarily pure. Further purification steps may be needed. Gold refining is the relatively simple process of heating the gold to a very elevated temperature. At these high temperatures, most of the impurities in the gold react with oxygen in the air to form metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627083898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... solidification, and control of cooling rates during freezing that influence the soundness of beryllium ingots. Typical defects associated with VIM include shrinkage pipe, gas porosity, microcracks, centerline defects, cold shuts, inclusions, and macrosegregation of metallic impurities. They point out...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... size and shape, grain heterogeneity, second phases, impurity inclusions, and residual stress, that can influence corrosion. Most metals/alloys of technological importance are polycrystalline aggregates, with each individual crystal referred to as a grain . Grain orientation can affect corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... stability should be at least 0.5. This finding is consistent with Soviet work that suggests there should be at least twice the concentration of transition metal impurity in beryllium as that of aluminum [ Papirov 1981 ]. Fig. 13.13 Effect of heat treatment on the ductility of cast and extruded...