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imperfections

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract In a perfect crystalline structure, there is an orderly repetition of the lattice in every direction in space. Real crystals contain a considerable number of imperfections, or defects, that affect their physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. Defects play...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... Abstract Alloying, heat treating, and work hardening are widely used to control material properties, and though they take different approaches, they all focus on imperfections of one type or other. This chapter provides readers with essential background on these material imperfections...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... K. , Ultrahigh Strength and High Electrical Conductivity in Copper , Science , Vol 304 , 2004 , p 422 – 426 10.1126/science.1092905 Crystalline Imperfections Key Topics in Copyright © 2021 ASM International® Materials Science and Engineering All rights reserved Yip-Wah Chung DOI...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.9781627083898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... with specialized welding processes, and base metal discontinuities. In addition, information on the common inspection methods used to detect these discontinuities is provided. imperfections weld discontinuities welding DISCONTINUITIES are interruptions in the desirable physical structure of a weld...
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Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 2 Mating fracture surfaces of pipe or tube welds showing imperfections detectable by eddy current inspection, (a) unwelded spot (diagonal arrows) and a nonpenetrating pinhole (horizontal arrows); (b) unwelded spots, probably caused by entrapped foreign matter; (c) surface crack in weld More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter introduces many of the key concepts on which metallurgy is based. It begins with an overview of the atomic nature of matter and the forces that link atoms together in crystal lattice structures. It discusses the types of imperfections (or defects) that occur in the crystal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This appendix provides detailed information on design deficiencies, material and manufacturing defects, and service-life anomalies. It covers ingot-related defects, forging and sheet forming imperfections, casting defects, heat treating defects, and weld discontinuities. It shows how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... as assembly errors, abnormal operating conditions, and inadequate maintenance. It also describes the precise usage of terms such as defect, flaw, imperfection, and discontinuity. failure analysis hip implants I beams manufacturing defects piston heads porcelain insulators quill shafts shaft...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... concentration due to weld shape and joint geometry; stress concentration due to weld imperfections; and residual welding stresses. Inspection and characterization of welds are described in the final section of this chapter. cast iron fusion welding residual stress solid-state transformation steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., crystalline imperfections, and the formation of surface or planar defects. It also discusses the use of X-ray diffraction for determining crystal structure. crystalline structures line defects metallic structure planar defects plastic deformation point defects volume defects X-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., which may be remelted several times to achieve the necessary properties. It also discusses the cause of defects and ingot imperfections and the benefits of billet reduction and grain-refinement processes. billets ingots mill products titanium alloys titanium sponge vacuum arc remelting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter describes several macroscopic examination techniques, including macroetching, contact printing, fracturing, and lead exudation. It explains how each method is implemented, why it is used, and what it reveals about manufacturing processes, defects, imperfections...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... in creating dislocations, breaking up grains into subgrains, and causing microscopic imperfections to coalesce into larger flaws. It also discusses the factors that contribute to the development and propagation of fatigue cracks, including surface deterioration, volumetric and environmental effects, foreign...
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Published: 01 June 1983
Figure 4.6 Electrical analog of thermal conduction and resistance mechanisms. The e-imperfection and ph-imperfection resistances can be further divided into resistances, such as those caused by dislocations and point defects (see Table 4.1 ). More
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Published: 01 June 1983
Figure 4.7 Resistance to electronic heat conduction: temperature dependencies and imperfection (defect) densities progressing from pure, annealed metals to highly alloyed metals. More
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Published: 01 June 1983
Figure 4.8 Typical electronic component of thermal conductivity for metals: temperature dependencies and imperfection (defect) densities progressing from pure, annealed metals to highly alloyed metals. More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 1.29 Typical graphite shapes after ASTM A 247. I, spheroidal graphite; II, imperfect spheroidal graphite; III, temper graphite; IV, compacted graphite: V, crab graphite; VI, exploded graphite; VII, flake graphite More
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Published: 01 November 2012
Fig. 32 Macroscale brittle crack propagation due to combined mode I and mode II loading. As cracks grow from the preexisting cracklike imperfection, crack curvature develops because of growth on a plane of maximum normal stress. Source: Ref 13 More
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Published: 01 January 2022
Fig. 4.11 ASTM Standard A247 for classification of seven types of graphite: I, ductile iron; II, ductile iron, imperfect nodules; III, malleable iron; IV, compacted graphite iron; V, ductile iron, nodules degenerated to spiky graphite; VI, ductile iron, graphite nodules exploded; and VII More