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image interpretation

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., image analysis, and image interpretation. Details of the processes involved, equipment used, and the factors to be considered are also presented. In addition, the applications of machine vision are discussed. image analysis image formation image interpretation image preprocessing machine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... detection, which detects an object's temperature from its infrared emission based on blackbody radiation physics. The basic principles and the interpretation of the results are reviewed. Some typical results and a series of examples illustrating the application of this technique are also shown. Brief...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... information about the defect. Various elemental analysis techniques, namely energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and energy-filtered TEM, are described using examples encountered in failure analysis. The origin of different image contrast mechanisms, their interpretation, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract This article addresses the ancillary issues regarding the nanoprobing and characterization of transistors, probing copper metallization layers, and the various imaging techniques. The discussion includes several characterization examples of known transistor failure types, namely four...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... fact that the electron beam raster and the image raster are synchronized. The scanning method may seem like a rather artificial way to produce an image, and yet the SEM readily generates very lifelike, easily interpreted, three dimensional images, see Fig. 2 . Although images like this are easy to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... rupture, including overheating, high-temperature creep, graphitization, and dissimilar metal welds. It explains how to determine which mechanisms are in play by interpreting fracture patterns and microstructural details. It also describes the investigation of several carbon and low-alloy steel tubes that...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Metals are used in many engineering applications because of their mechanical properties, particularly strength and ductility. This chapter explains how mechanical properties are measured and how to interpret the results. It describes the most widely used tests, including tensile tests...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of ultrasonic flaw detectors, ultrasonic transducers, and search units and couplants. It then discusses the principles of operation, presentation, and interpretation of data of pulse echo and transmission methods. This is followed by sections providing information on general characteristics of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... optimal benefit from the microscope. The modern-day metallographer is very involved with metallographic interpretation and must fine-tune the microscope to obtain the ultimate image for accurate microstructural interpretation. Also, a metallographer may be in the position to recommend or purchase a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... microscopic image interpretation because the specimen is illuminated with artificial light having spectral characteristics different from those of natural daylight. The possibility of local color recognition allows one to analyze the birefringence effect caused by the anisotropy of the optical properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... : “ The Nomarski Interference-Contrast Microscope. An Experimental Basis for Image Interpretation, ” J. R. Microsc. Soc. , vol. 88 , pt. 3 , 1968 , pp. 305 – 349 . 10.1111/j.1365-2818.1968.tb00616.x 27. Hoffman R. , and Gross L. : “ Reflected-Light Differential-Interference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... understand the advantages and limitations associated with different electron sources and lens configurations as well as apertures and detectors. This book presents only the basic information needed to understand and interpret the usual image modes of electron microscopes, in particular SEMs. Fig. 6.2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., properties, and performance. It includes images of elongated and equiaxed structures, primary alpha, transformed beta, and metastable phases as well as spheroidal and intergranular beta, alpha case, and intermetallic compounds. It also defines important terms and provides step-by-step procedures for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... thermal stimulus examples are Optical Beam-Induced Resistance Change/Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration and Seebeck Effect Imaging. Lastly, the article discusses the application of solid immersion lenses to improve spatial resolution. laser-based failure analysis photocurrent techniques scanning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... imaging. Figure 3 An A-scan displays echo amplitude information at a single x-y location of the sample as a function of the echo return time. The A-scan is an essential component to understanding and interpreting SAM images. If any question arises as to the nature of a feature in a SAM image...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... theory, providing information on electro-optical effects and free-carrier effects. It then focuses on commercially available continuous wave LVP systems. Alternative optoelectronic imaging and probing technologies for fault isolation, namely frequency mapping and laser voltage tracing, are also discussed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... positive replica of heavy-metal-shadowed carbon. This is then lifted onto a copper grid. This specimen is examined in the TEM, the features observed on a fluorescent screen and recorded in a photographic film. The image is then interpreted to throw light on the mechanism of fracture. Figure 4.7 is a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... techniques are supplemented by a series of case studies that include pertinent visual examination results and the corresponding images that aided in the characterization of the failures. The techniques covered include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... products and continuous cast products. If the macrograph evaluation is not performed according to a given standard, the results must be evaluated and interpreted considering the information revealed by the macrograph. Sulfur prints are produced directly on photographic paper, and these images can be...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter examines the effects of welding on the structure of metal, particularly the changes induced in the isothermal regions adjacent to the weld. It presents more than 150 images identifying structures and features associated with fusion and solid-state welding processes...