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image formation

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Machine vision is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye/brain system with electronic and electromechanical techniques. This chapter discusses four basic steps in the machine vision process, namely image formation, image preprocessing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... martensite and bainite. It also discusses the formation of austenite, the control and measurement of austenitic grain size, the characteristics of ferritic microstructures, and the methods used to classify ferrite morphology. austenite austenite decomposition austenitic grain size bainite carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... the formation of martensite and bainite in steel and other alloys. It describes the morphology of both types of structures, the factors that influence their formation, how they respond to tempering processes, and their effect on mechanical properties and behaviors. It also discusses the role of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., causing adhesive wear and the welding of slipper pad material onto the surface of a mating cam plate. Excessive friction between the slipper pads and cam plate, in turn, created a torsional overload that caused the camshaft to break. The chapter presents SEM images showing the wear pattern on one of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... seen as fine precipitates within the grains. Glyceregia etch Fig. 21 SEM image of as-sintered surface of a 316L part showing spherical oxides formed during cooling from the sintering temperature. These are oxides of silicon, and their formation is promoted by a high dew point of the sintering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the image. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is less susceptive to such chromatic aberrations because lenses are not required for image formation or magnification. This advantage of STEM is very useful for imaging thick (>200 nm) samples, frequently encountered in failure analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the various features of the metallurgical microscope. Key concepts are defined such as resolving power, the virtual image, bright- and dark-field illumination, numerical aperture, focal length, image contrast, depth of field, and spherical and chromatic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... gigabecquerel (Curies). Neutron radiography is a form of nondestructive inspection that uses a specific type of particulate radiation, called neutrons, to form a radiographic image of a test piece. The geometric principles of shadow formation, variation of attenuation with test piece...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...: Electron Microscopy and Other Advanced Techniques,” in this book). There is no orientation condition that allows the formation of a high-resolution image of the two grains, simultaneously at the more common high-angle grain boundaries.) High-resolution TEM image. Each point represents a column of atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... (IC) products. This article encompasses the key principles of CADNav for various aspects of semiconductor FA and its importance for improved yield and profitability. An overview of the required input data and formats are described for both IC and package devices, along with key considerations and best...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... examines the growth mechanisms and structural details that set them apart. It also discusses the formation of compacted (vermicular) graphite and malleable iron, and compares and contrasts the composition, properties, and heat treatment of whiteheart and blackheart malleable types. chilled cast iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... formation. In addition, more micrographs are presented to provide a better visual image of certain metallographic features mentioned in the text but not illustrated there. Topologically close-packed phases are those such as σ, μ, and Laves (among others) that generally are brittle and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the formation and growth of various integrated steel companies from 1901 to 1959, namely the United States Steel Corporation, Bethlehem Steel Corporation, and a few of the notable smaller steel companies. The chapter discusses labor unrest and the growth of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... drag on bainite formation mechanisms. It also discusses the development of ferrite-carbide bainites and their effect on toughness, hardness, and ductility. bainite bainitic transformation ferrite mechanical behavior References 6.1 Davenport E.S. and Bain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... structure of metals and their role in mechanical deformation, annealing, precipitation, and diffusion. It describes the concept of solid solutions and the effect of temperature on solubility and phase transformations. The chapter also discusses the formation of solidification structures, the use of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... measure it. It then describes the principles of austenite formation and grain growth and examines several time-temperature-austenitizing diagrams representing various alloying and processing conditions. The chapter concludes with a discussion on hot deformation and subsequent recrystallization...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... goes on to identify the most common superlattice structures and their corresponding alloy phases. It also discusses the factors that limit the formation of superlattices along with the kinetics of spinodal decomposition and its effect on microstructure development. antiphase boundaries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., crystalline imperfections, and the formation of surface or planar defects. It also discusses the use of X-ray diffraction for determining crystal structure. crystalline structures line defects metallic structure planar defects plastic deformation point defects volume defects X-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the processes involved in alloy production, including melting, casting, solidification, and fabrication. It discusses the effects of alloying on solidification, the formation of solidification structures, supercooling, nucleation, and grain growth. It describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... diffusion, nucleation, and growth. It also discusses alloying, heat treating, and defect formation and briefly covers condenser tube materials. alloying elements austenitic stainless steels boiler tubes condenser tubes continuous cooling transformation diagram creep-resistant steels ferritic...