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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... where it is directed by the user to either a CMOS sensor (to record diffraction patterns) or a photomultiplier tube (to observe real-space images). The chapter discusses some of the nuances of digital imaging and diffraction and includes examples in which transmission electron detectors are used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the principles of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) as implemented using conventional scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). It describes the pros and cons of low-energy imaging and diffraction, addresses basic hardware requirements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Abstract Abstract Magnetic field imaging (MFI), generally understood as mapping the magnetic field of a region or object of interest using magnetic sensors, has been used for fault isolation (FI) in microelectronic circuit failure analysis for almost two decades. Developments in 3D magnetic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Abstract Abstract X-ray imaging systems have long played a critical role in failure analysis laboratories. This article begins by listing several favorable traits that make X-rays uniquely well suited for non-destructive evaluation and testing. It then provides information on X-ray equipment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Abstract Abstract This article addresses the ancillary issues regarding the nanoprobing and characterization of transistors, probing copper metallization layers, and the various imaging techniques. The discussion includes several characterization examples of known transistor failure types...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...Abstract Abstract Machine vision is a means of simulating the image recognition and analysis capabilities of the human eye/brain system with electronic and electromechanical techniques. This chapter discusses four basic steps in the machine vision process, namely image formation, image...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Abstract Abstract In embedded systems, the separation between system level, board level, and individual component level failure analysis is slowly disappearing. In order to localize the initial defect area, prepare the sample for root cause analysis, and image the exact root cause, the overall...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of how to use the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for imaging integrated circuits. The discussion covers the principles of operation and practical techniques of the SEM. The techniques include sample mounting, sample preparation, sputter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... followed by thermal imaging such as forward bias, reverse bias, and lock-in, and emission imaging such as electroluminescence and photoluminescence imaging. electroluminescence imaging failure analysis forward bias imaging lock-in imaging photoluminescence imaging reverse bias imaging solar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the various features of the metallurgical microscope. Key concepts are defined such as resolving power, the virtual image, bright- and dark-field illumination, numerical aperture, focal length, image contrast, depth of field, and spherical and chromatic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... Fig. 1 SEM image of a water atomized stainless steel powder (316L) having a moderately irregular particle shape, leading to a good combination of apparent density, green strength, compressibility, and flow rate Fig. 2 SEM image of a stainless steel powder (409L) having a highly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... pads, causing adhesive wear and the welding of slipper pad material onto the surface of a mating cam plate. Excessive friction between the slipper pads and cam plate, in turn, created a torsional overload that caused the camshaft to break. The chapter presents SEM images showing the wear pattern on one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... optical inspection, X-ray inspection, scanning acoustic microscopy, infrared (IR) microscopy, and electrical verification. The article discusses various fault isolation techniques to tackle the wide array of failure signatures, namely IR lock-in thermography, magnetic current imaging, time domain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... Brief sections are devoted to the discussion on liquid-crystal imaging and fluorescent microthermal imaging technique for thermal detection. defect localization failure analysis fluorescent microthermal imaging infrared thermography liquid-crystal imaging thermal detection techniques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... probing techniques are E-beam Logic State Imaging, Electron-beam Signal Image Mapping, and E-beam Device Perturbation. Backside nano-probing techniques discussed include: Electron Beam Absorbed Current, Electron Beam Induced Resistance Change, four terminal resistance measurements, resistive gate defect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... procedures based on focused ion beam milling used for TEM sample preparation. It describes the principles behind commonly used imaging modes in semiconductor failure analysis and how these operation modes can be utilized to selectively maximize signal from specific beam-specimen interactions to generate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... imaging, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, Auger electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, oxygen analysis, and nanoindentation. cold-sprayed coatings residual-stress analysis hardness bond adhesion strength microscopy spectroscopy diffraction MATERIALS...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... diffraction equipment. This chapter describes how these instruments can be used to gather important information about a microstructure. The instruments covered include image analyzers, transmission electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopes, electron probe microanalyzers, scanning transmission...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... condition, consisting of martensite and possibly some retained austenite, is heated at subcritical temperatures. It includes micrographs that illustrate the effect of carbide precipitation, the decomposition of retained austenite, and recovery and recrystallization. It also includes images that reveal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... the effects of welding on the structure of metal, particularly the changes induced in the isothermal regions adjacent to the weld. It presents more than 150 images identifying structures and features associated with fusion and solid-state welding processes, including electroslag, TIG, gas, electron-beam...