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hydrogen-assisted cracking

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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 5 Effect of hydrogen content on hydrogen-assisted cracking (HAC) for microvoid coalescence (MVC), quasi-cleavage (QC), and intergranular (IG) fracture modes. Adapted from Beachem. Source: Ref 32 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... weldment. These include poor workmanship, a variety of hydrogen-assisted cracking failures, stress-corrosion cracking, fatigue, and solidification cracking in steel welds. Hydrogen-assisted cracking can appear in four common forms, namely underbead or delayed cracking, weld metal fisheyes, ferrite vein...
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 12 The H 2 S-pH tolerance of low-carbon martensitic stainless steel tested by the slow strain-rate technique. HAC, hydrogen-assisted cracking. Source: Ref 25 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... steels are not usable in hydrogen environments. Threshold stress intensities and crack growth rates are a function of the specific hydrogen environments, with H 2 S being one of the most severe environments ( Fig. 6 ). At lower yield strengths, the mechanism for hydrogen-assisted failure apparently...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... corrosion; galvanic corrosion; erosion-corrosion, including cavitation erosion and fretting corrosion; intergranular corrosion, including sensitization and exfoliation; dealloying; environmentally assisted cracking, including stress-corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue, and hydrogen damage (including...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... avoidance must be given serious attention. Previous reviews of environmentally assisted cracking of uranium alloys have concentrated on presenting detailed data for stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) ( Ref 12.1 – 12.4 ) or hydrogen embrittlement ( Ref 12.2 , 12.5 – 12.7 ) in specific alloys and alloy...
Image
Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 12 4137 steel (UNS G41370) bolts (hardness, 42 HRC) that failed by hydrogen-assisted stress-corrosion cracking caused by acidic chlorides from a leaking polymer solution. (a) Overall view of failed bolts. (b) Longitudinal section through one of the failed bolts in (a) showing multiple More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of high-strength steels to SCC ( Ref 18.15 , 18.50 , 18.51 ). It has been reported that SCC resistance decreases with rising strength level ( Ref 18.50 , 18.52 ). Stress-corrosion cracking can take the form of hydrogen-assisted or -induced cracking in specific material/environments ( Ref 18.53...
Image
Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 1.5 Schematic of crack-tip processes that may be the rate-determining step in environmentally assisted crack propagation. For this illustration, an internal hydrogen embrittlement mechanism is assumed in order to maximize the number of possible rate-determining steps. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... For stress-corrosion cracking, the stress is often externally applied. For hydrogen damage, liquid metal induced embrittlement, and solid metal induced embrittlement, the stress is induced by reactions with the environment. In the time between the publication of the first edition of this book...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of these subjects are covered in Chapter 14, “Stress-Assisted Corrosion and Cracking.” The subject of erosion and erosion/corrosion is also reviewed with an attempt to offer readers general guidance on materials selection and application. Discussion also includes hydrogen attack of carbon steels in boilers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... proposed for SCC ( Ref 11 , 15 – 17 ). The first is anodic dissolution, which is characterized by one or more galvanic processes at or near the grain boundaries (e.g., similar to that discussed for IG corrosion in the 2 xxx section). The second is hydrogen-assisted cracking, in which hydrogen, by one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... is common in the refining and power-generation industries where components frequently operate in aggressive environments. Environmentally assisted cracking or degradation can take many forms, ranging from local thinning caused by global corrosion attack, to SCC and hydrogen damage. The form of cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... practice for making and using precracked double beam stress corrosion specimens. Specific Environments ASTM G142: Test method for determination of susceptibility of metals to embrittlement in hydrogen containing environments at high pressure, high temperature or both. ASTM G35: Practice...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
...) Toughness Hydrogen embrittlement Hydrogen embrittlement (shutdown) Sulfide stress cracking Toughness Slow crack growth Environment-assisted crack growth Toughness Flow localization Fatigue-crack-growth rate Corrosion Hydrogen attack Strength and creep resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in the electrolyte) and for hydrogen-assisted crack growth resulting from the reduction of hydrogen ions at the crack tip. Thermodynamics of SCC The thermodynamic conditions for anodically assisted SCC are that dissolution or oxidation of the metal and its dissolution in the electrolyte must...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.9781627082662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... The challenge is even greater when dissimilar-metal welds are required. Improper selection may allow local attack due to weld-metal dilution or may allow hydrogen-assisted cracking due to hard heat-affected zones (HAZs). More information on preventing corrosion of welds is available in the chapters “ Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... will never again reach the OPPT value. Hence, the risk is reduced of undergoing local plasticity at fillets when hydrogen is present. However, once fatigue cracks have initiated, their propagation rate will be significantly higher in a high-pressure hydrogen environment. (An order of magnitude or more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... requirements both for anodically assisted SCC (where crack propagation depends either directly or indirectly on the oxidation of metal atoms from the crack tip and their dissolution in the electrolyte) and for hydrogen-assisted crack growth resulting from the reduction of hydrogen ions at the crack tip...