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hydrogen attack

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Carbon and low-alloy steels in high-temperature service are vulnerable to the effects of hydrogen attack, which include severe loss in tensile and rupture strengths as well as ductility. As the chapter explains, when steel is in contact with hydrogen molecules at elevated temperatures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... damage, and reviews hydrogen degradation in specific ferrous and nonferrous alloys. The preeminent theories for hydrogen damage are based on pressure, surface adsorption, decohesion, enhanced plastic flow, hydrogen attack, and hydride formation. The specific alloys covered are iron-base, nickel, aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, high-temperature hydrogen attack, and hydride formation). All these forms are addressed in this chapter in the context of aqueous corrosion. For each form, a general description is provided along with information on the causes and the list of metals that...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...-temperature hydrogen attack and its effect on strength and ductility. cracking hydrogen embrittlement liquid-metal-induced embrittlement quench embrittlement temper embrittlement tempered-martensite embrittlement toughness TOUGHNESS IS THE TERM used to describe the ability of a steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Alloys containing elements that form volatile or low-melting-point halides are susceptible to high-temperature corrosion attack. This chapter explains how to determine whether such phases are likely to form, and the rate at which they occur, based on thermodynamic data and phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Amorphous alloys, because of their lack of crystallographic slip planes, are assumed to be insensitive to the selective corrosion attack that causes stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in crystalline alloys. However, under certain conditions, melt-spun amorphous alloys have proven...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... temperatures between 425 and 540 °C (800 and 1000 °F) because of increased temperature resistance (i. e., strength retention). The C-0.5Mo steel was originally considered significantly more resistant than carbon steel to high-temperature hydrogen attack (HTHA). It has been extensively used for reactor vessels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion, along with the organisms usually implicated in the attack. The types of attack that have most commonly been documented are illustrated through generalized case histories for different classes of alloys. The chapter also describes the general approaches to be taken to prevent microbiologically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Abstract Superalloys tend to operate in environments where they are subjected to high-temperature corrosion, oxidation, and the erosive effects of hot gases. This chapter discusses the nature of these attacks and the effectiveness of various protection methods. It describes the primary forms of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... environments in which a water phase is present (with the exception of alcohols) and thus does not include degradation such as high-temperature hydrogen attack or liquid-metal embrittlement. Table 2.1 Typical compositions and mechanical properties of common carbon and low-alloy steels UNS ASTM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... strength. It then describes the relationship between sintered density and corrosion resistance and how it varies for different types of powders and operating environments. The chapter also explains how stainless steel powders respond to different sintering atmospheres, including hydrogen, hydrogen-nitrogen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... converters operate at high pressures (130–350 atm or 800–1000 atm) and temperatures up to 650 °C (1200 °F) ( Ref 43 ). Cihal ( Ref 43 ) discussed the major corrosion problems—hydrogen attack and nitridation—for the ammonia converter. The converter usually consists of a vessel with a catalyst basket and an...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
..., and hydrogen damage (including hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, high-temperature hydrogen attack, and hydride formation) Figure 3 illustrates schematically some of the most common forms of corrosion. More detailed information pertaining to recognition and prevention of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... greater when dissimilar-metal welds are required. Improper selection may allow local attack due to weld-metal dilution or may allow hydrogen-assisted cracking due to hard heat-affected zones (HAZs). More information on preventing corrosion of welds is available in the chapters “ Corrosion of Carbon Steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... reducible species. An example is the attack experienced by carbon and low-alloy steels, in which atomic hydrogen reacts with iron carbide to form methane, which then leads to loss of strength from decarburization, formation of voids, and fissuring of the steel. Alloy steels with stable carbides, such as...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... At elevated temperatures, attack in this region usually manifests itself as excessive hydrogen pickup, which leads to embrittlement, as opposed to the normal thinning caused by uniform corrosion. In general, the key to avoiding corrosion attack in titanium is to keep it out of environments...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... the sulfate ions, and this reaction converts the soluble sulfates to sulfide (hydrogen sulfide), which is a pitting activator and attacks the metal surface, forming, for example, iron sulfide (FeS). It has also been suggested that hydrogen sulfide may be subsequently oxidized to thiosulfate, which is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., so that the supply of hydrogen ions is quite limited. For this reason, the cathodic reaction is quite slow and the corrosion rate is very low. Cases in which the rate of attack is limited by the speed of the cathodic reaction are known as cathodically controlled reactions. If, as is usually the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, and galvanic corrosion. Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), corrosion fatigue, and hydrogen embrittlement are also common modes of attack. High-temperature halogen ion solutions, high-temperature waters, and high-temperature alkaline...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... desired objectives of quenching, annealing, and aging along with the associated risks of surface damage caused by oxidation, carbon pickup, alloy depletion, intergranular attack, and environmental contaminants. It also discusses heat treatment atmospheres, furnace and fixturing requirements, and practical...