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hydrofluoric acid

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... 0.8 30 10% (a) 38 100 400 16.0 30 0.25% (a) 95 205 76 3.0 10 2% (b) Boiling point Boiling point 125 5.0 17 7–8% (b) 60 140 125 5.0 A nitric-hydrofluoric acid solution, which is the final stage brightening in most alloy cleaning lines, should be maintained...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... challenging. 6.1 Bertrandite and Phenacite Flotation 6.2 Beryl Concentration from Pegmatitic Gangues and Low-Grade Deposits 6.3 Concentration of Beryl Using Hydrofluoric Acid Activation 6.4 Concentration of Beryllium Ores 6.5 Tall Oil Fatty Acid Flotation of Phenacite and Bertrandite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... for subsequent nondestructive inspection. The etching process removes smeared metal that may be present as a thin surface layer after machining and/or blast cleaning. The parts can be etched by immersing them in a bath containing hydrochloric acid (80%), hydrofluoric acid (13%), and nitric acid (7%) to remove...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...% concentrated hydrofluoric acid in water, alcohol, or glycerine is satisfactory as a swab or dip etch. A 10 vol% ammonium bifluoride solution, diluted 50 vol% with glycerine, can be substituted for the aforementioned etchant and behaves similarly. A 1 to 3 min dip etch in boiling 20 vol% oxalic acid solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... The solutions can be prepared by mixing just prior to etching, or they can be drawn from a premixed stock solution stored in a well-labeled glass or plastic bottle. (Note: Etchants containing hydrofluoric acid cannot be stored in glass containers, because the acid attacks the glass itself.) As is seen later...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... hydrofluoric acid strip liquor contains 40 to 60 g Be/L, 10 to 15 g Fe/L, 80 to 100 g HF/L, 1 g Al/L, < 0.01 g Cu/L, and minor traces of other impurities. This liquor is processed along with the normal feedstreams used in the extraction of beryllium metal. The excess hydrofluoric acid is recycled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... because of a passive surface layer of silicon oxide that forms during exposure to many chemical environments (except hydrofluoric acid). Typical refinery and petrochemical plant applications include valve and pump components for corrosive service. High-nickel cast irons (with 13 to 36% Ni and up to 6% Cr...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... with very high chromium contents, such as N06072 (filler metal 72 with 44 wt% Cr), N06035 (G-35 alloy with 33.2 wt% Cr), and N06690 (alloy 690 with 29 wt% Cr), possess outstanding resistance to oxidizing aqueous environments, such as nitric acid and nitric-hydrofluoric acid mixtures. The nickel-chromium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... microstructural refinement and the best combination of strength and ductility. After rolling, smaller rod sizes (6.4 to 9.5 mm, or 0.25 to 0.38 in.) are chemically descaled in hot caustic baths and pickled in an aqueous mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids (10 to 35% HNO 3 and 1.5 to 5% HF). If straight...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... + 5%HNO 3 18 77 (171) 0.000 Hydrofluoric acid 1 26 (79) 127 Hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous 100 Room 0.127–1.27 Hydrofluoric-nitric acid 5 vol% HF-35 vol% HNO 3 ... 25 (77) 452 Hydrofluoric-nitric acid 5 vol% HF-35 vol% HNO 3 ... 35 (95) 571 Hydrogen peroxide 3 Room...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... frequently, the function of passivation is to remove free iron, oxides, and other surface contamination. For example, in the steel mill, a stainless steel may be pickled in an acid solution, often a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids (HNO 3 -HF), to remove oxides formed during heat treatment. Once...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... • • Chlorine • • Chloranilines • Hydrochloric acid (aerated) • Hydrocyanic acid + hydrogen cyanide • • Hydrofluoric acid vapors • Hydrofluoric acid (aerated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... to attack by almost all acids except hydrofluoric acid. The refractory metals with a bcc crystal structure display a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) behavior typical of such metals. When tested below the transition temperature (that is, where cleavage or the intergranular fracture mode...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... are alloys 400 (N04400), R-405 (N04405), and K-500 (N05500), which are used for certain corrosive chemicals, such as hydrofluoric acid, and for seawater. At higher copper contents are the cupronickels, such as 706 (C70600) and 715 (C71500), which are widely used for seawater applications because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...%HNO 3– 2%HSO 4 [ Brush Wellman 1982 , Hashiguchi 1992 ] Sulfuric acid solutions Nitric/hydrofluoric acid solutions and ammonia bifluoride [ Hashiguchi 1992 ] 15% ammonium bifluoride and 20% nitric acid-1% hydrofluoric acid [ Beitscher 1979 ] 10% distilled or deionized water, 127 g dry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... grit. Alkaline clean (using method B). Method E: Degrease with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), followed with a vapor degrease. Etch for 30 s in a solution of (by weight) 45 parts nitric acid, 7 parts hydrofluoric acid, and 260 parts distilled water maintained at 21 to 27 °C (70 to 80 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... is especially important in cases where SCC may be expected. A main application of nickel-copper alloys, alloy 400, K500, and Monel alloys, is in the handling of pure hydrofluoric acid. However, if oxidants such as oxygen are present in hydrofluoric acid, nickel-copper alloys may suffer intergranular attack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... field service experience with structural adhesive bonds has repeatedly demonstrated that adhesive durability and longevity depend on the stability and bondability of the adherend surface. The effects of several different surface preparations on aluminum adherends are shown in Fig. 9.2 . Phosphoric acid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Fe 3+ ) Boiling Chromic acid 10 Boiling Oxalic acid 10 (plus Fe 3+ ) Boiling Phosphoric acid 60–85 Boiling Hydrofluoric acid 2 (plus Fe 3+ ) 77 (170) Ferric chloride 5 Boiling 25 Room Acetic acid/anhydride mixture Unknown 100–110 (212–230) Maleic anhydride...