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hot-tool welding

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... are sometimes heated close to the forging temperature in processes known as isothermal forging or hot-die forging . This prevents excessive cooling when producing thin walls or webs. Tool steel dies are often not capable of processing temperatures for hot-die and isothermal forging, and so more expensive die...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
..., springback, residual stress, die wear, hot forming, downgaging limits, welding, binders, draw beads, and tool material wear. advanced high-strength steels automotive industry welding hot forming wear residual stress THE WIDESPREAD USE of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) in the automotive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract This chapter begins with a description of the requirements of tooling and tooling material for hot extrusion. It covers the processes of designing tool and die sets for direct and indirect extrusion. Next, the chapter provides information on extrusion tooling and die sets for direct...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... geometries can be produced in a single forming step using automated welding patterns. Low forming pressures and single-step processing significantly reduce tooling costs compared with conventional methods. Fig. 6.4 Schematic of four-sheet superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the practices and procedures used to reveal and record macrostructural features such as hardening depth, weld thickness, crack size, porosity, hot folds, and machining and tooling marks. It provides information on sectioning, sample location, orientation, surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... ovens, heated platen presses, or autoclaves. Since time for chemical reactions is not requisite, the time required to reach consolidation temperature is a function of the heating method and the mass of the tooling. The consolidation temperature depends on the specific thermoplastic resin, but it should...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... for castings that must exhibit superior strength. For elevated-temperature applications, the most commonly used alloy is Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo + Si. This alloy is primarily used for turbine components and in sheet form for afterburner structures and various hot airframe applications. Gas Turbine Engine...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... of the deforming material at elevated temperatures, tool stresses and machine loads are, in a relative sense, lower in hot forming than in cold forming. Forming is especially attractive in cases where (a) the part geometry is of moderate complexity and the production volumes are large, so that tooling costs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... restrictions on the forming methods compared, for example, with stainless steels. Forming Considerations Forming Temperatures Hot forming requires expensive tooling and handling procedures ( Ref 11.1 – 11.14 ). Therefore, selection of forming temperatures involves consideration of several factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Source: Ref 7.23 Forming Process The hot blank is at 810 °C (1490 °F) when it reaches the tool (75 °C, or 165 °F), and its lower surface begins to cool due to contact, as shown in Fig. 7.20 . The metal-to-metal contact conductance (~2000 W/m 2 · K) is much greater than the convection (~8.46...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... thickness is extruded on an 11,000 metric ton (12,000 ton) press. Lubrication Tool surfaces for hot extruding titanium must be lubricated to reduce friction between the billet and tools. Lubrication is particularly important to reduce galling. Two basic types of lubricants used for extruding titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... to the melting point of 660 °C, the hot-working temperature of aluminum alloys falls in the range of 350 to 550 °C, which can be easily withstood by tools made from suitable hot-working steels. In this temperature range the flow stress is reduced to values that require relatively low specific press pressures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... of PM stainless steels was not practiced to any great extent until the introduction of PM stainless steel exhaust flanges and hot exhaust gas outlet (HEGO) bosses in the early 1990s. Therefore, most publications addressing welding of PM stainless steels are of relatively recent origin. The metallurgical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., tool steel for cold working. Annealed to 250 HB. Carbides in a ferritic matrix. (a) Conventional ingot, 830 mm (33 in.) diameter subjected to forging reduction via hot working of 5.6:1 (measured as the ratio of cross sections before and after work). (b) An ingot produced by electroslag remelting (ESR...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... be produced using an actual welding process. An example of this type of test is Varestraint hot crack testing using the gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. Simulated welding tests involve the application of heat through means other than welding, with or without loading. An example is Gleeble testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... symbol Water-hardening tool steels W Shock-resisting tool steels S Oil-hardening cool work tool steels O Air-hardening, medium-alloy cold work tool steel A High-carbon, high-chromium cold work tool steels D Mold steels P Hot work tool steels, chromium, tungsten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... and tooling to prevent weld contamination. However, removal of surface oxides and other foreign material is desirable for all welding processes, to ensure acceptable welds. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Gas Metal Arc Welding Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and plasma arc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
..., and the properties of the extruded section can be understood only from a metallurgical viewpoint. This chapter, therefore, explains the basic terminology of metallurgy—naturally in the context of the aims of this book—to provide the tools needed by those involved in extrusion. More detailed explanations can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... joint Excessive bead convexity and bead reinforcement Excessive bead concavity and undersized welds Sharp undercut and overlap at the weld toe Cracks—hot or cold, longitudinal or transverse, crater and at weld toe Gas porosity Incomplete fusion Arc strike Spatter Subsurface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... of applications as 5083, particularly where resistance to either stress corrosion or atmospheric corrosion is important 5454 For all types of welded assemblies, tanks, pressure vessels. ASME code approved to 205 °C (400 °F). Also used in trucking for hot asphalt road tankers and dump bodies; also...