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hot working

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of hot working on the structure and properties of steel. It explains how working steels at high temperatures promotes diffusion, which helps close cavities and pores, and how it changes the shape and distribution of segregates, offsetting their effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the equipment and processes used to convert titanium billet and bar into useful shapes or more refined product forms. These secondary working operations include open-die, closed-die, hot-die and isothermal forging as well as ring rolling and extruding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... designed for titanium, but, in some cases, conversion work is done on equipment designed for stainless steel and other specialty steels. This presents difficulties because of the behavior and properties of titanium. Hot working temperatures must be more closely controlled, generally using the lowest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... As discussed in Chapter 11, “Hot Working,” in this book, the distinction between cold and hot working in metallurgy is not characterized by a unique temperature. In a simplified way, working is considered “cold” when it happens at temperatures in which the deformation energy is stored in the material, so...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... control of the working temperature and strain rate. It describes the materials typically used as well as equipment and tooling, die heating procedures, part separation techniques, and postforging heat treatment. forgings hot-die forging isothermal forging nickel alloys titanium alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... steels. Titanium, on the other hand, is enhanced as a deoxidizer in chromium-iron alloys, and consequently small amounts of it are sometimes used as a supplementary deoxidant in alloys even though an alloy specification may not call for any. Titanium is believed to reduce hot working defects. More active...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the design and operation of forging presses and hammers. It covers the most common types of presses, including hydraulic, mechanical, and screw presses, explaining how they work and comparing and contrasting their load and displacement profiles, stroke lengths...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... caused by temperature gradients and the direct mechanical loadings (forming and closing pressure). Researchers ( Ref 7.30 , 7.31 ) note that hot stamping dies are usually designed to work without a blank holder in order to minimize heat loss in the flange area during the forming operation. Because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract The machinery and equipment required for rod and tube extrusion is determined by the specific extrusion process. This chapter provides a detailed description of the design requirements and principles of machinery and equipment for direct and indirect hot extrusion. It then covers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract This chapter describes three approaches for 3D hot-spot localization of thermally active defects by lock-in thermography (LIT). In the first section, phase-shift analysis for analyzing stacked die packages is performed. The second example employs defocusing sequences...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of die failures in hot and cold forging operations. It describes failure classifications, fatigue fracture and wear mechanisms, analytical wear models, and the various factors that limit die life. It also includes several case studies in which finite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the general characteristics of two commonly classified metalworking processes, namely hot working and cold working. Primary metalworking processes, such as the bulk deformation processes used to conduct the initial breakdown of cast ingots, are always conducted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...., An Introduction to the Mechanical Behavior of Metals , School of Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, MA , 1962 • “ Research Report: Work at IIT Research Institute ,” Committee of Hot Rolled and Cold Finished Bar Products , American Iron and Steel Institute , New York...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract In forgings of both ferrous and nonferrous metals, the flaws that most often occur are caused by conditions that exist in the ingot, by subsequent hot working of the ingot or the billet, and by hot or cold working during forging. The inspection methods most commonly used to detect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the development and use of microstructure models for optimizing superalloy forging operations. It describes how the processes that control grain structure evolution during hot working were used in model formulation and compares predicted microstructures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... include water-hardening; shock-resisting; oil-hardening cold-work; air-hardening, medium-alloy cold-work; high-carbon, high-chromium cold-work; low-alloy, special-purpose; mold; hot-work; and high-speed tool steels. air-hardening tool steel annealing austenitizing high-carbon tool steel high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The possible classification for tool steels is their division into four groups according to their final application: hot-worked, cold-worked, plastic mold, and high-speed tool steels. This chapter mainly follows such division by application, but the grade nomenclatures used here...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract The hot-working process extrusion is used to produce semifinished products in the form of bar, strip, and solid sections, as well as tubes and hollow sections. The first part of this chapter describes the composition, properties, and applications of tin and lead extruded products...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... loaded in three dimensions is provided. Examples of calculations for different containers, along with their stresses and dimensions, are presented and the manufacture, operation, and maintenance of containers are described. The chapter further discusses the properties and applications of hot working...