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hot deformation

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.37 The effect of the degree of deformation during hot forging (measured as the ratio of transverse cross sections before and after hot forging) on the properties of a Ni-Cr steel produced through conventional ingot casting. Source: Ref 24 More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.43 The influence of the degree of deformation during hot working on the average austenitic grain size for two original ingot structures. Steel containing C = 0.11%, Mn = 0.62%, Ni = 3.7%, Cr = 0.25%, and Mo = 0.18%. Source: Ref 26 More
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 5.15 (Part 1) Deformation of manganese sulfide inclusions during hot rolling. (a) and (b) Semikilled resulfurized low-carbon steel (type I sulfides present in ingot. 0.13C-0.01 Si-1.11Mn-0.28S-0.003Al-0.0290 (wt%). (a) Rolled at 900 °C, reduced 8×. Unetched. 250×. (b) Rolled More
Image
Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 16.22 (a) The deformation simulation of a hot forged gear with flash. (b) The volume fraction of martensite (dark is higher) in a steel gear after quenching [ Wu et al., 2001 ] More
Image
Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 5.9 Deformation behavior of the magnesium alloy MgAl6Zn in hot-compression tests in the temperature range between 200 and 220 °C (Source: Schmidt/Beck) More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... deformed metals. The chapter reviews the concepts of annealing of cold worked metals. It then looks at hot working and the grain size associated with it. Additionally, the chapter reviews the methods of strengthening in the steels that rely mainly on reduction in the primary ferrite grain size...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... measure it. It then describes the principles of austenite formation and grain growth and examines several time-temperature-austenitizing diagrams representing various alloying and processing conditions. The chapter concludes with a discussion on hot deformation and subsequent recrystallization...
Image
Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 8-37 The relationship of the recrystallization process of deformed austenite and the formation of primary ferrite for two Nb-containing steels. (From L.J. Cuddy, in The Hot Deformation of Austenite , p 169, J.B. Ballace, editor, The Metallurgical Society, Warrendale, PA (1977), Ref 16 ) More
Image
Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 19.2 Measured (data points) dynamic recrystallization (DRX) kinetics for hot deformation of Waspaloy at (a) 1850 °F (1010 °C) and (b) 1951 °F (1066 °C) and fitted curves More
Image
Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 8-25 The effect of austenitizing temperature on the austenite grain size for steels containing about 0.8% C and about 0.8% Nb. (From R. Coladas, J. Masounave, J.-P. Bailon, in The Hot Deformation of Austenite , p 341, J.B. Ballace, editor, The Metallurgical Society, Warrendale, PA (1977 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... in the development of the forging processes and sequences. The understanding and prediction of microstructures that develop during the hot deformation processing has long been the “art” of forging metallurgists. Many tools, such as wedge tests, were used in the past to understand the impact of temperature, strain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... coefficients, and flow behavior determined in the isothermal hot tensile test. It also describes three often-overlapping stages of cavitation during tensile deformation, namely, cavity nucleation, growth of individual cavities, and cavity coalescence. cavitation deformation flow behavior Gleeble test...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the general characteristics of two commonly classified metalworking processes, namely hot working and cold working. Primary metalworking processes, such as the bulk deformation processes used to conduct the initial breakdown of cast ingots, are always conducted...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11.39 Longitudinal cross section of a rolled ring of AISI 8630 Mod steel produced by hot forging. (forging reduction 2:1), followed by ring rolling (total approximate deformation during hot working 4:1). Dendritic structure. The regions close to the cylindrical surfaces (left and right More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... is considered to be performed “cold” when it is performed at conditions in which the deformation energy is stored in the material, recovery and recrystallization processes not being active. Hot working processes, on the other hand, are distinguished by significant structural changes in the material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses bulk deformation processes and how they are used to reshape metals and refine solidification structures. It begins by describing the differences between hot and cold working along with their respective advantages. It then discusses various forging methods...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
that the degree of deformation during hot working was probably not sufficient to produce the desired changes in the part structure. The longitudinal section (parallel to the direction of larger deformation during hot working) is normally the most adequate to evaluate the degree of deformation. Etchant: iodine. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... altered during heat treatment, solidification, and deformation (hot and cold working). Some specific examples are then shown to illustrate what can go wrong through unintentional changes in microstructure, for example, the loss of carbon from the surface of the steel by the process known...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... with the temperature rise due to the work of deformation ( Sec. 2.4 ), cracking may be particularly severe in hot forging of materials with narrow hot working temperature ranges. Cracking may be limited or avoided by the use of lubricants that lower friction sufficiently to ensure near-homogeneous deformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... of the continuous cast microstructure of aluminum and copper alloys. The discussion provides information on billet and grain segregation and defects in continuous casting. The chapter then discusses the processes involved in the deformation of pure metals and alloys at room temperature. Next, it describes...