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homogeneous nucleation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... mathematical formalism is focused on homogeneous nucleation, the same applies to heterogeneous (happening at special sites) nucleation. The main quantitative difference is that the maximum of the nucleation rate for heterogeneous nucleation will happen closer to the equilibrium temperature. Fig. 9.2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the structures, phases, and phase transformations observed in metals and alloys as they solidify and cool to lower temperatures. It begins with a review of the solidification process, covering nucleation, grain growth, and the factors that influence grain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
..., are much shorter than for the homogenization stage (~900 s). The times taken for all three stages are strongly temperature dependent. They are, for example, shorter by four to five orders of magnitude at temperatures of 859 to 900 °C ( Ref 1 , 3 ). A decrease in the incubation time for nucleation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... diffusion, nucleation, and growth. It also discusses alloying, heat treating, and defect formation and briefly covers condenser tube materials. alloying elements austenitic stainless steels boiler tubes condenser tubes continuous cooling transformation diagram creep-resistant steels ferritic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the processes involved in alloy production, including melting, casting, solidification, and fabrication. It discusses the effects of alloying on solidification, the formation of solidification structures, supercooling, nucleation, and grain growth. It describes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... high-carbon steels). It also addresses process-specific issues, explaining how the presence of carbides (in the two-phase process) produces significant changes, and how homogenization and austenite grain growth influence the single-phase process. austenitization cast iron high-carbon steel low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract Structural and fracture mechanics-based tools for metals are believed to be applicable to nonmetals, as long as they are homogeneous and isotropic. This chapter discusses the essential aspects of the fatigue and fracture behaviors of nonmetallic materials with an emphasis on how they...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... process. Fig. 4.4 Nucleation and growth during solidification Nucleation can occur by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Homogeneous nucleation occurs when nucleation takes place throughout the bulk of the liquid without preference for any point; that is, the probability of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... precipitate that forms important, but also the distribution of the precipitates. Distribution of precipitates influences mechanical strength by affecting dislocation motion. Nucleation can occur either homogenously (uniformly and nonpreferentially) or heterogeneously (preferentially) at specific sites...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...: Ref 2.2 Nucleation can occur by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Homogenous nucleation occurs when nucleation takes place throughout the bulk of the liquid without preference for any point; that is, the probability of nucleation is the same everywhere within the volume of the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... chemical spinodal, thus defining the coherent spinodal and the coherent miscibility gap ( Fig. 9.18 ). Fig. 9.18 Miscibility gap. Region 1: Homogenous α is stable. Region 2: Homogenous α is metastable; only incoherent phases can nucleate. Region 3: Homogeneous α is metastable; coherent phases can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... structures formed during slower cooling rates from temperatures in the single-phase region. General or continuous precipitation refers to the uniform appearance of second-phase particles throughout the grains of the matrix. General precipitation does not imply homogeneous nucleation, rather, the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... equilibrium to be established during cooling. If the solidified alloy is subjected to a homogenization heat treatment followed by hot working, the diffusion process is accelerated and equilibrium may be established. The classical description of peritectic reactions postulates heterogeneous nucleation of β...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... evidence for both of these mechanisms. Special heat treatments are used to minimize the formation of PFZs. Precipitate-free zones can be eliminated by a two-stage heat treatment where nucleation is induced homogeneously at a low temperature, and the precipitates are then allowed to grow during the second...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... processing can become catastrophic to mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The thermal processing of stainless steels can have many purposes. Normally, the objectives are simple: heating for hot working, annealing to soften after cold working, solution annealing to homogenize, heating to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... ductility ( Fig. B.11 ). Homogenization heat treatments are also dependent on the time, t , required to diffuse a solute over a given average distance, x . If the coefficient of diffusion in the solid is D , then the relationship between time and distance is approximately: (Eq B.3) x = D t...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Aluminum Alloys , B. Mater. Sci. , Vol 24 , 2001 , p 345 – 353 10.1007/BF02708630 28. Murty B.S. , Kori S.A. , and Chakraborty M. , Grain Refinement of Aluminium and Its Alloys by Heterogeneous Nucleation and Alloying , Int. Mater. Rev. , Vol 47 ( No. 1 ), 2002 , p 3 – 29...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Urcola J.J. , Improvement of Toughness by Stopping Brittle Processes Nucleated in Ceramic Particles Through Thermomechanically Optimised Microstructures in Engineering Steels , in Fundamentals and Applications of Microalloying Forging Steels , Van C.J. Tyne, Krauss G. , and Matlock...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... strengths and improved ductility ( Fig. 7.12 ). Homogenization heat treatments are also dependent on the time, t , required to diffuse a solute over a given average distance, x . If the coefficient of diffusion in the solid is D , then the relationship between time and distance is approximately: (Eq...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... favorable to less severe environments. The problems start from the moment the component is put into the furnace for austenitization. If it is secured only in two extremities, there is the risk of deflection due to its own weight. If it is supported on the furnace hearth, its heating will not be homogeneous...