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high-velocity mechanical forming

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... milliseconds is considered a high-velocity or impulse forming process. This chapter discusses the operating principles, equipment, and applications of the most common high-rate forming processes, including high-velocity hydroforming, high-velocity mechanical forming, and electromagnetic or energy-based forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... aluminum and magnesium alloys, consideration must be given to the high thermal conductivity and low specific heat capacity of these alloys, because they can lose and gain heat rapidly when they come in contact with the dies. Many methods are used for heating sheet and tools before and during forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... of manganese and boron) Formable, very low springback, very high strength after forming (ultimate tensile strength: 1400–1500 MPa, or 205–215 ksi; yield strength: 1000–1200 MPa, or 145–175 ksi) TWIP Fully austenite (include 15–25% Mn, Ni, Si, Al) High strength, very high strain hardening, very...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... been given in Ref 13.3 . It states that ISF is a process which: DEEP DRAWING is a very cost-effective and well-established process for the mass production of sheet metal components. However, because of the high costs and long lead time for die manufacturing, it is not economical for small-batch...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... mechanical presses in the industry. Extended drives are designed either to change the slide velocity (link drive presses) or to generate high press forces with small ram displacements (knuckle joint and toggle presses) ( Ref 10.1 ). Mechanical presses can be classified according to their drive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... mechanical properties for unidirectional composites made from E-glass/epoxy, aramid/epoxy, high-strength carbon/epoxy, and intermediate modulus carbon/epoxy are summarized in Table 14.1 . With regard to this table, there are two words of caution: (1) the properties shown are for unidirectional composites...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... ferrite grains. Etchant: aqua regia. Fig. 12.8 Twins produced inside ferrite grains by shock loading the material at high impact velocities. (Neumann lines; Ref 4 ) in a very low carbon steel. Etchant: nital. Neumann lines are named after the German scientist Franz Ernst Neumann (1798–1895...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... elastically. If the force is high enough, the material will not regain its original shape and the result is permanent or plastic deformation. Dents in fenders of cars are examples of plastic deformation. A still greater force may cause the material to fracture. Stress is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... composite or aggregate.) This nil ductility and high sensitivity to stress raisers make mechanical testing of ceramics using conventional test methods very difficult. Applicable ASTM standards are listed in Table 7.1 . Table 7.1 Standards for mechanical testing of ceramics Standard No. Title...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract Mechanical treatments such as grinding and shot peening are often employed in the production of case-carburized parts. Grinding, besides restoring precision, removes carbide films, internal oxidation, and high-temperature transformation products. Shot peening strengthens component...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
..., assembly, and operation Prior damage by mechanical or corrosion modes may have initiated cracking Alignment, vibration, balance High cycle low stress: large fatigue zone; low cycle high stress: small fatigue zone Attack morphology and alloy type must be evaluated Severity of exposure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
.... Several studies have shown that, especially for large forming dies, where a high load (3,000–12,000 kN) is required, the bolster may bend with a deflection of up to 0.6 mm, as shown in Fig. 9.15(a) ( Ref 9.10 , 9.25 ). A recent study at Volkswagen also showed that even at 50% of rated capacity, the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... comes into contact with the die, the cushion cylinders start to build up the pressure. Because of the compressibility of the hydraulic fluid, there is a slight delay before the required blank holder pressure is built up. The high velocity impact of the die on the stationary blank holder causes a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Fig. 15.20 Sheet metal part with a grid of dots after forming. Source: Ref 15.23 Ultrasonic sensors operate by emitting and receiving high-frequency sound waves. The frequency is usually on the order of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... prediction of the quality and properties of the formed product and the force and energy requirements of the process. This leads to forming high-quality products with a minimum of trial and error by optimizing the tool design and process conditions. The mechanics of deformation (i.e., the metal flow, strains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
.... High-strength low-alloy steels can be hot formed. However, hot forming usually alters mechanical properties, and a particular problem that arises in many applications is that some of the more recent thermomechanical processing techniques (such as controlled rolling), used for plates in particular, are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...) or a chemical additive into the oxygen jet. The metal powder supplies combustion heat and breaks up oxide films. Chemical additives combine with oxides to form lower-temperature melting products that flush away. Plasma arc cutting (PAC) employs an extremely high-temperature, high-velocity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... alloys place restrictions on the forming methods compared, for example, with stainless steels. High-quality blanks are required to produce consistently reliable formed parts. Quality control and inspection are required at all stages of blank preparation. The raw...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.9781627083164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... support by ash-laden flue gas In more severe cases, erosion can result in very rapid attack that quickly leads to thinning and penetration. Conditions that give rise to such rapid erosion usually involve high velocities, large amounts of entrained solid or liquid particles, and abrupt changes in...